Mr. Haneef (Chairman of department)
Mr. Naveed Anjum
B.S (HONS) Part- 2
To the teachers
Introduction to the study Region
Stop # 1.
Rolling Hill Topography
Stop # 2.
Remnant of Indus River
Stop # 3.
Ghandghar Range Extension
Stop # 4.
Stop # 5.
Margalla Hills Limestone
To my parents, teachers, fellows
Today's students are tomorrow's decision-makers, whether their future
careers are in politics, finance, technology, medicine, geology, or other
sciences. It is their decisions that collectively will decide the fate of our planet-
earth. The instructors in Earth science or geology must ensure that their
students have the opportunity to obtain a basic understanding of the Earth so
that they are equipped to make informed, environmentally responsible
decisions in their future careers.
I will definitely say that our teachers/ instructors helped us a lot in
attaining goals that were selected for we students during Margalla Hills field
trip, held on 27th
April 2010. I convey the message that understanding the
Earth is exciting, and that it enriches and heightens our sense of awareness of
the world around us.
Our field to Margalla Hills was to recognize and understand various
lithologies, structures, fossils, economically important mines in the
sedimentary strata. If, at the end of my report, you urge to have a glance over
again, then I will have definitely done my best job in preparing this report and
achieving the goals through the ever best help of my teachers.
Organization of the report
This report is based on one day study of various formations,
groups and members of the formations in Margalla Hills. The report is
organized as we got stops during our field and that was definitely totally road
side field. All this study deals with the lithologies, structures and fossil
contents of those formations.
An undertaking such as this one is impossible to complete
without the help and expertise of many people. The team at the field
encouraged and advised me every step of the way. Their expertise and
cheerfulness kept me motivated and ensured that I completed the task at
hand and made it a pleasurable experience. My teachers navigated me
through many of the members, formations and groups of the Margalla Hills
and also through various secrets of writing this report which made substantial
improvements to the text and artwork. I greatly appreciate the impressive
skills of my teachers. I also acknowledge the department of geology and
university of Peshawar that helped a lot in arranging the field for us in such
crucial circumstances of our homeland.
To my family who helped me along every step of my life and in
understanding of my geology life while I was out of the native town in field
studies and was a constant source of inspiration.
The Margalla Hills contains the most important geologic and
paleontologic localities in Pakistan, and is one of the outstanding field
areas in the entire world. Despite its easy accessibility, it has a
wealth of geological and paleontological features. In fact, it represents
an open book of geology where various richly fossiliferous stratified
rocks are very well exposed due to lack of vegetation. These rocks also
provide an excellent opportunity for appreciation of tectonics in the
In addition to the easily available roadside geology, a
little prominent height provided fantastic locations to study the
sedimentary succession. This succession has been rightly called a Field
Museum of Geology and Paleontology and can be classified as one of the
great paleontological areas of the world, fully worthy of conservation
and protection efforts.
To the teachers
We live in amazing times. In the past 20 years we have learned
an enormous amount about our Earth, and new information confronts us
almost daily. We can scarcely watch the news or read a newspaper without
learning of some new and exciting discovery related to Earth. This information
had come at such a bewildering pace, that it was difficult to assimilate it all
without the help of our teachers.
I convey that during field our teachers gave us excitement of discovery
while heightening our knowledge, appreciated us, and made us interested in
the geologic field work and in displaying an appetite for learning more. In the
near future, we students will make decisions, big and small, that will impact
the environment on a local, regional, and even global scale. Facing to such
decisions, I hope that our teachers, in greater way, helped us in making the
Two different legends describe the origin of the word 'Margalla'.
According to the first legend, these hills have always been known as an
abode of snakes. Mar means 'snake' in Persian, Pashto and galla means
'herd', therefore Margalla means a place with a lot of snakes.
According to the second legend, the word 'Margalla' was derived
from Mar Galla, meaning 'to strangulate'. Mar means 'hit'
and Galla means 'neck'. It is believed that there were lots of bandits and
robbers who used these hills as a sanctuary and would strangle travelers
in order to rob them.
The Margalla Hills—the foothills of the Himalayas—are a series of
small-elevation hills located north of Islamabad, Pakistan. Margalla
Range has an area of 12,605 hectares. The hill range nestles between an
elevation of 685 meters at the western end and 1,604 meters on its east.
STOP # 1.
On the way to Margalla Hills through motorway , we had
our 1st stop on the road side. There we observed “the Rolling
This means that there were depressions and then a little
elevation in the road and this phenomenon or feature is called
“rolling hill topography”.
This area was included in Peshawar Basin and which
was filled with younger sediments or recent sediments. And
those sediments were deposited by Indus river.
Its lithology was mostly gravel, sand, silt, clay etc.
Now question arises that how this topography developed?
1st option: is this area seismically active? ...NO.
2nd option: is this because of Folding and Faulting? ....NO.
Because folding and faulting has nothing to do with
So there left only the 3rd option.
3rd option: these features are because of the movements of
water streams…..YES. This is the correct answer.
And those streams flow from North towards South.
These streams are ephemeral that flow only during heavy
Also small bridges were made which indicated that at
rainy season water flows through these streams.
STOP # 2.
After our 1st stop we again continued our journey but a
little far a remnant body
attracted us and we took
the 2nd stop there.
In this 2nd stop we
saw an outcrop, which was
definitely a “Remnant
body” and that was the
leftover of the Indus River.
This was not yet
This remnant was containing alternating sequence of sand and
mud and that clued us about the environment of deposition
which was assigned as “Fluvial”.
The mud was assigned as deposited in flood plain
environment while the sand had been registered as “alluvium
or colluviums deposit”.
STOP # 3.
Our 3rd stop was again on the roadside of the motorway.
There we stopped
for an outcrop cut
for the road.
This was the
and it was almost E-
This outcrop was composed of mixed lithology. It
included Limestone, Slate and some calcareous beds.
But mainly it was composed of Phyllite and Slates. Its colour
was mainly dark grey.
Along with compositional variation it was having very thin
and some thick beds as well.
It was dipping around 35°- 40°.
Its age was assigned as Paleozoic.
Environment of deposition:
STOP # 4.
Our 4th stop was in the outskirts of Islamabad.
where we came across “ Muree Formation”.
At this place we were actually standing in the NPDZ-
Northern Potwar Default Zone. Actually Islamabad is located in
NPDZ. To our North was the MBT- Main Boundary Thrust Fault.
And to our South was Kamlial Formation.
Mari group, Wynne 1874
Muree beds, Lydekker 1876
Muree series, Pilgrim 1910
Then Stratigraphy Committee of Pakistan approved the
named “Muree formation”.
Type Locality / Section:
Derived from the Murree Hill, in the Rawalpindi
North of Dhok Maiki ( lat. 33º25´N and long. 72º35´E ) in
Cambellpur District is a type section.
Clay is Red, Purple
and Sandstone is
grey and greenish
grey in colour.
It was thick
bedded and was dipping 10° - 15° E.
Thickness / Distribution:
Widely distributed in Upper Indus Basin, Hazara and
3030m in Potwar Basin
Thins out to Western Kohat upto 9m
180-600m in Salt Range
Poorly fossiliferous, few plants remains, fish remain, frog
and mamal bones.
Lower: unconformable with Chorgali formation.
Upper: conformable with Kamlial.
Environment of Deposition:
River deposits (Alluvial Plain).
STOP # 5.
As we were going to Margalla Hills but unfortunately we
could not reach to the main body of Hill due to some problems.
So we changed our target 4m Margalla Hills in Islamabad
and turned to the road going to Texla, in order to study the
same Margalla Hills limestone in the outcrop near “Nicolson
There we stopped as the 5th and final stop.
Here we studied a Limestone body which was later assigned as
Margalla Hills Limestone. The details are as under:
MARGALLA HILL LIMESTONE:
The term margalla hill limestone of latif (1970) has been
formally accepted by stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan.
Limestone with subordinate marl and shale. Limestone colour is
grey at fresh surface and pale grey on weathered surface. Fine to
medium grained, nodular medium to thick bedded and rarely massive.
Marl is grey to brownish
grey while the shale is
greenish brown to brown
and echinoids are
common in formation.
Conformable with Chorgali formation of Chherat group from early
Lower: Conformable with Patala formation of Makarwal group
And finally our last field trip of 2nd year in Geology comes
to an end which was seriously disturbed because of not gaining
access to the Margalla Hills.
۞ CREDITS ۞
With the Grace of ALLAH (THE most merciful
and beneficent ) I have completed my this report of Margalla Hills Field.
This all credit goes to my dear Parents, respected Teachers and fellows
who always remembered me in their prayers, guided me through their
best and gave me a backup while doing this tough job.
I want to thank them all.
1. The Geological Survey of Pakistan (volume 22)
2. Stratigraphy of Pakistan – by S.M.Ibrahim Shah