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Margalla hills field report


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Ahmad ghani
Department of Geology
University of Peshawar

Published in: Education, Technology
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Margalla hills field report

  1. 1. 1 MARGALLA HILLS Submitted to: Mr. Haneef (Chairman of department) Mr. Naveed Anjum Mr. Saboor Submitted by: Ahmad Ghani B.S (HONS) Part- 2
  2. 2. 2 Brief Contents Preface Acknowledgments Abstract To the teachers Chapter 1:  Introduction to the study Region Chapter 2:  Stop # 1. Rolling Hill Topography  Stop # 2. Remnant of Indus River  Stop # 3. Ghandghar Range Extension  Stop # 4. Muree Formation  Stop # 5. Margalla Hills Limestone Chapter 3:  CREDITS  REFRENCE DEDICATED TO To my parents, teachers, fellows & All the DIAMONDS
  3. 3. 3 Preface Our Approach Today's students are tomorrow's decision-makers, whether their future careers are in politics, finance, technology, medicine, geology, or other sciences. It is their decisions that collectively will decide the fate of our planet- earth. The instructors in Earth science or geology must ensure that their students have the opportunity to obtain a basic understanding of the Earth so that they are equipped to make informed, environmentally responsible decisions in their future careers. I will definitely say that our teachers/ instructors helped us a lot in attaining goals that were selected for we students during Margalla Hills field trip, held on 27th April 2010. I convey the message that understanding the Earth is exciting, and that it enriches and heightens our sense of awareness of the world around us. Our field to Margalla Hills was to recognize and understand various lithologies, structures, fossils, economically important mines in the sedimentary strata. If, at the end of my report, you urge to have a glance over again, then I will have definitely done my best job in preparing this report and achieving the goals through the ever best help of my teachers. Organization of the report This report is based on one day study of various formations, groups and members of the formations in Margalla Hills. The report is organized as we got stops during our field and that was definitely totally road side field. All this study deals with the lithologies, structures and fossil contents of those formations. Acknowledgments An undertaking such as this one is impossible to complete without the help and expertise of many people. The team at the field encouraged and advised me every step of the way. Their expertise and cheerfulness kept me motivated and ensured that I completed the task at hand and made it a pleasurable experience. My teachers navigated me through many of the members, formations and groups of the Margalla Hills and also through various secrets of writing this report which made substantial improvements to the text and artwork. I greatly appreciate the impressive skills of my teachers. I also acknowledge the department of geology and
  4. 4. 4 university of Peshawar that helped a lot in arranging the field for us in such crucial circumstances of our homeland. To my family who helped me along every step of my life and in understanding of my geology life while I was out of the native town in field studies and was a constant source of inspiration. Abstract: The Margalla Hills contains the most important geologic and paleontologic localities in Pakistan, and is one of the outstanding field areas in the entire world. Despite its easy accessibility, it has a wealth of geological and paleontological features. In fact, it represents an open book of geology where various richly fossiliferous stratified rocks are very well exposed due to lack of vegetation. These rocks also provide an excellent opportunity for appreciation of tectonics in the field. In addition to the easily available roadside geology, a little prominent height provided fantastic locations to study the sedimentary succession. This succession has been rightly called a Field Museum of Geology and Paleontology and can be classified as one of the great paleontological areas of the world, fully worthy of conservation and protection efforts. To the teachers We live in amazing times. In the past 20 years we have learned an enormous amount about our Earth, and new information confronts us almost daily. We can scarcely watch the news or read a newspaper without learning of some new and exciting discovery related to Earth. This information had come at such a bewildering pace, that it was difficult to assimilate it all without the help of our teachers. I convey that during field our teachers gave us excitement of discovery while heightening our knowledge, appreciated us, and made us interested in the geologic field work and in displaying an appetite for learning more. In the near future, we students will make decisions, big and small, that will impact the environment on a local, regional, and even global scale. Facing to such decisions, I hope that our teachers, in greater way, helped us in making the right ones.
  5. 5. 5 INTRODUCTION Two different legends describe the origin of the word 'Margalla'. According to the first legend, these hills have always been known as an abode of snakes. Mar means 'snake' in Persian, Pashto and galla means 'herd', therefore Margalla means a place with a lot of snakes. According to the second legend, the word 'Margalla' was derived from Mar Galla, meaning 'to strangulate'. Mar means 'hit' and Galla means 'neck'. It is believed that there were lots of bandits and robbers who used these hills as a sanctuary and would strangle travelers in order to rob them. The Margalla Hills—the foothills of the Himalayas—are a series of small-elevation hills located north of Islamabad, Pakistan. Margalla Range has an area of 12,605 hectares. The hill range nestles between an elevation of 685 meters at the western end and 1,604 meters on its east. STOP # 1. On the way to Margalla Hills through motorway , we had our 1st stop on the road side. There we observed “the Rolling Hill topography”. This means that there were depressions and then a little elevation in the road and this phenomenon or feature is called “rolling hill topography”. This area was included in Peshawar Basin and which was filled with younger sediments or recent sediments. And those sediments were deposited by Indus river. Its lithology was mostly gravel, sand, silt, clay etc. Now question arises that how this topography developed? 1st option: is this area seismically active? ...NO. 2nd option: is this because of Folding and Faulting? ....NO. Because folding and faulting has nothing to do with younger sediments. So there left only the 3rd option. 3rd option: these features are because of the movements of water streams…..YES. This is the correct answer.
  6. 6. 6 And those streams flow from North towards South. These streams are ephemeral that flow only during heavy rainfall. Also small bridges were made which indicated that at rainy season water flows through these streams. STOP # 2. After our 1st stop we again continued our journey but a little far a remnant body attracted us and we took the 2nd stop there. In this 2nd stop we saw an outcrop, which was definitely a “Remnant body” and that was the leftover of the Indus River. This was not yet weathered. This remnant was containing alternating sequence of sand and mud and that clued us about the environment of deposition which was assigned as “Fluvial”. The mud was assigned as deposited in flood plain environment while the sand had been registered as “alluvium or colluviums deposit”. STOP # 3. Our 3rd stop was again on the roadside of the motorway. There we stopped for an outcrop cut for the road. This was the extinction of “Ghandghar Range” and it was almost E- W trending.
  7. 7. 7 Lithology: This outcrop was composed of mixed lithology. It included Limestone, Slate and some calcareous beds. But mainly it was composed of Phyllite and Slates. Its colour was mainly dark grey. Along with compositional variation it was having very thin and some thick beds as well. Dip: It was dipping around 35°- 40°. Age: Its age was assigned as Paleozoic. Environment of deposition: Marine Environment. STOP # 4. Our 4th stop was in the outskirts of Islamabad. where we came across “ Muree Formation”. Our location: At this place we were actually standing in the NPDZ- Northern Potwar Default Zone. Actually Islamabad is located in NPDZ. To our North was the MBT- Main Boundary Thrust Fault. And to our South was Kamlial Formation. MUREE FORMATION: Mari group, Wynne 1874 Muree beds, Lydekker 1876 Muree series, Pilgrim 1910 Then Stratigraphy Committee of Pakistan approved the named “Muree formation”. Type Locality / Section: Derived from the Murree Hill, in the Rawalpindi District.
  8. 8. 8 North of Dhok Maiki ( lat. 33º25´N and long. 72º35´E ) in Cambellpur District is a type section. Lithology: Clay and sandstone with subordinate intraformational conglomerates. Clay is Red, Purple and Sandstone is grey and greenish grey in colour. Dip: It was thick bedded and was dipping 10° - 15° E. Thickness / Distribution: Widely distributed in Upper Indus Basin, Hazara and Kashmir area. 3030m in Potwar Basin Thins out to Western Kohat upto 9m 180-600m in Salt Range Fossils: Poorly fossiliferous, few plants remains, fish remain, frog and mamal bones. Age: Early Miocene. Contact: Lower: unconformable with Chorgali formation. Upper: conformable with Kamlial. Environment of Deposition: River deposits (Alluvial Plain). STOP # 5. As we were going to Margalla Hills but unfortunately we could not reach to the main body of Hill due to some problems. So we changed our target 4m Margalla Hills in Islamabad and turned to the road going to Texla, in order to study the
  9. 9. 9 same Margalla Hills limestone in the outcrop near “Nicolson Monument”. There we stopped as the 5th and final stop. Here we studied a Limestone body which was later assigned as Margalla Hills Limestone. The details are as under: MARGALLA HILL LIMESTONE: The term margalla hill limestone of latif (1970) has been formally accepted by stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan. Lithology: Limestone with subordinate marl and shale. Limestone colour is grey at fresh surface and pale grey on weathered surface. Fine to medium grained, nodular medium to thick bedded and rarely massive. Marl is grey to brownish grey while the shale is greenish brown to brown in color. Fossils: Forams, mollusks and echinoids are common in formation. Age: Early Eocene Contacts: Upper : Conformable with Chorgali formation of Chherat group from early Eocene. Lower: Conformable with Patala formation of Makarwal group from Paleocene. And finally our last field trip of 2nd year in Geology comes to an end which was seriously disturbed because of not gaining access to the Margalla Hills.
  10. 10. 10 ۞ CREDITS ۞ With the Grace of ALLAH (THE most merciful and beneficent ) I have completed my this report of Margalla Hills Field. This all credit goes to my dear Parents, respected Teachers and fellows who always remembered me in their prayers, guided me through their best and gave me a backup while doing this tough job. I want to thank them all. REFRENCE: 1. The Geological Survey of Pakistan (volume 22) 2. Stratigraphy of Pakistan – by S.M.Ibrahim Shah 3. www.brooks/ 4. 5. 6.