Bakri Final Presentation 2

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Final Presentation of Internship In Sudan. Presentation was attended by PETRONAS and Scomi Oiltools Officials

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Bakri Final Presentation 2

  1. 1. INDUSTRIAL INTERNSHIP PRESENTATION<br />ScomiOiltools Overseas (M), Khartoum , Sudan<br />AHMAD BAKRI BIN ZUBIR<br />Petroleum Engineering | 9058<br />UniversitiTeknologiPetronas<br />Plant Supervisor<br />Mr. RamySrag<br />DF Operational Manager<br />Date: 4th January 2010<br />Time: 2.30 pm<br />
  2. 2. OUTLINE<br />Industrial internship objectives<br />Host company profile<br />Drilling fluids<br />Internship assignments, activities and site operations<br />Lesson learned and experience gained<br />Discussion & recommendation<br />Conclusion<br />
  3. 3. INTERNSHIP OBJECTIVES<br />Integrate theory with practice & apply theoretical knowledge in industrial application.<br />Introduce student to work culture and industrial practices<br />Expose student to potential employers<br />Importance Health, Safety & environment (HSE) at workplace<br />To make interns be acquainted with water-based mud systems used in ScomiOiltools in Sudan operations and contribute the company by assisting on-site field engineers.<br />
  4. 4. HOST COMPANY PROFILE<br />ScomiOiltools (formerly known as KMC Oiltools), a subsidiary of Scomi Group. <br />One of the world’s leading providers of innovative high performance drilling fluids and drilling waste management services.<br />ScomiOiltools had established overseas operations in Sudan in 2003 with GNPOC and in 2005 with WNPOC<br />Involved in three core division – drilling fluids, drilling waste management and oilfield product distribution<br />Worldwide operations coverage of drilling fluid operations - extends from Asia region to USA<br />
  5. 5. DRILLING FLUIDS<br />Introduction<br />Fluids that aid the production and removal of cuttings from the borehole<br />Differ widely in their chemical compositions.<br />Also known as mud.<br />
  6. 6. DRILLING FLUIDS<br />Functions<br />Additional<br />Seal Permeable formation<br />Primary<br />Suspend cuttings<br />- Static condition<br />Transport & remove<br />cuttings<br />from the well<br />Cool, lubricate<br />the drill string & BHA<br />Control<br />formation<br />pressure<br />Minimize<br />loss of fluid<br />to formation<br />Maintain<br />borehole stability<br />Hydraulic<br />horse power<br />to the bit<br />
  7. 7. DRILLING FLUIDS<br />Mud Circulation<br />
  8. 8. DRILLING FLUIDS<br />Mud Content<br />Fluid Phase (water or oil)<br />Solids (to give desired mud property)<br />Inactive solids – do not react with mud (i.e barite) to give mud weight<br />Active solids – clays that react with the water (i.ebentonite) to give viscosity.<br />Additives (to give desired mud property)<br />Polymers and chemicals to control viscosity, yield point, fluid loss, pH, controls<br />
  9. 9. DRILLING FLUIDS<br />Mud Types<br />1. WATER BASED MUD<br /><ul><li>Continuous phase is water
  10. 10. Main disadvantage – causes shale instability
  11. 11. Lower cost
  12. 12. Types of WBM used in ScomiOiltools Sudan Operations -
  13. 13. Non-inhibitive (gel)
  14. 14. Inhibitive (KCl)
  15. 15. Polymer (KCl PHPA, KCl silicate)</li></li></ul><li>DRILLING FLUIDS<br />Mud Types<br /><ul><li>Continous phase is oil
  16. 16. Advantage
  17. 17. Does not react with shales
  18. 18. Good lubrication to BHA
  19. 19. Undamaging mud – very low formation damage if any
  20. 20. Excellent wellbore stability
  21. 21. Usually used in HTHP wells
  22. 22. Disadvantage
  23. 23. Environmental impacts (toxic)
  24. 24. Much more expensive than WBM
  25. 25. Danger threat to rig workers - slippery</li></ul>2. OIL BASED MUD<br />
  26. 26. DRILLING FLUIDS<br />Chemical & Polymer Additives<br />Soda Ash – Hardness reducer<br />Sodium Bicarbonate – Hardness & pH reducer<br />Caustic Soda – Alkalinity control (increases pH)<br />Bentonite – Viscosifier<br />PAC-R & PAC-UL (organic polymer) – Viscosity & Fluid loss control<br />Starch – Fluid loss control<br />Xanthan gum – Viscosifier and LSRV (low shear rate viscosifier)<br />Calcium Carbonate – Bridging & weighting agent<br />Barite – Weighting agent<br />
  27. 27. ACTIVITIES, TASKS & ASSIGNMENTS<br />Office/HQ<br /><ul><li> HSE course
  28. 28. Learnt about drilling fluids
  29. 29. Discussion with SV and other </li></ul> mud engineers<br /><ul><li> Revision of mud recaps
  30. 30. Prepared data tables of wells </li></ul> drilled during 2008 & 2009<br /><ul><li> Prepared the mud lab
  31. 31. Assisted in re-checking</li></ul> chemical invoices<br />Warehouse<br /><ul><li> Attended GNPOC HSE meeting
  32. 32. Briefly learnt about inventory & </li></ul> logistics management<br /><ul><li> Learnt more about drilling </li></ul> fluids with the warehouse SV<br />
  33. 33. ACTIVITIES, TASKS & ASSIGNMENTS<br />Site Operation<br /><ul><li>Have been to 2 well sites:
  34. 34. Azraq N-1 (Gel Mud & KCl polymer mud) - (43 days)
  35. 35. Joknyang NE-1 (KCl PHPA mud) - (28 days)
  36. 36. Given the following tasks:
  37. 37. Perform the duty of back-up mud engineer
  38. 38. Maintain and operate the solids control equipments
  39. 39. Mixed new mud & hi-vis mud
  40. 40. Assisted during cementing jobs
  41. 41. Make mud tests
  42. 42. Chemical inventory management & repacking
  43. 43. Learnt about good drilling practices</li></li></ul><li>SITE OPERATIONS<br />Solids control equipments<br />
  44. 44. SITE OPERATIONS<br />Solids control equipments<br /><ul><li>Sand Trap
  45. 45. Pit tank located under shale </li></ul> shakers<br /><ul><li> Mud flow rate is slow
  46. 46. Settling rate – function of:
  47. 47. SG of particle
  48. 48. Density & viscosity of mud
  49. 49. Type flow regime & residence </li></ul> time in pit<br /><ul><li> Periodically checks the sand trap </li></ul> to see the sand level<br /><ul><li> If level of sand is high – dump the </li></ul> sand trap – 40 -50bbls<br />
  50. 50. SITE OPERATIONS<br />Solids control equipments<br /><ul><li>Shale Shakers
  51. 51. Most important SCE
  52. 52. Mud flows - return line to shale shakers
  53. 53. Vibrating Screens remove drill cuttings
  54. 54. Solids that are bigger than screen </li></ul> size are conveyed off the screen<br /><ul><li> Size of solids discarded are dependant </li></ul> upon the opening size of the screens (120 microns, 170 microns, 200 microns)<br />
  55. 55. SITE OPERATIONS<br />Solids control equipments<br /><ul><li>Shale Shakers: Cuttings Observation & Maintenance
  56. 56. When drilling shale zones, good inhibited mud should </li></ul> produce rounded, pebble size cuttings & dry in the inside<br /><ul><li> Larger than average & angular cuttings are cavings
  57. 57. Poorly inhibited mud/ Gel mud: Fine & sticky solids blind the</li></ul> screens. Results in mud overflow. To overcome:<br /><ul><li> Increase the inclination of the screens.
  58. 58. Clean the screen using water jet nozzle</li></li></ul><li>SITE OPERATIONS<br />Solids control equipments<br /><ul><li>Shale Shakers: Cuttings Observation & Maintenances</li></ul>Angular cuttings : Indication of cavings<br />
  59. 59. SITE OPERATIONS<br />Solids control equipments<br /><ul><li>Shale Shakers: Cuttings Observation & Maintenances</li></ul>Usage of gel mud: Sticky, uninhibited cuttings, Mud Overflow<br />
  60. 60. SITE OPERATIONS<br />Solids control equipments<br /><ul><li>Shale Shakers: Maintenances
  61. 61. Helped changing torn-out/broken screens
  62. 62. Torn screens allow larger solids to pass through screen – Shale shaker not effective
  63. 63. Causes: - Usual wear and tear of screens</li></ul> - Improper installation of screens – premature defects<br /> - low quality screen <br />
  64. 64. SITE OPERATIONS<br />Solids control equipments<br /><ul><li>Desilter
  65. 65. Removes silts -> hydrocyclone
  66. 66. Smaller size than desander
  67. 67. Can handle up to 75 GPM of mud flow
  68. 68. Remove particles: 15-30 microns
  69. 69. Desander
  70. 70. Removes sand –> hydrocyclone
  71. 71. Can handle up to 500 GPM of mud flow
  72. 72. Remove particles: 45-74 microns</li></li></ul><li>SITE OPERATIONS<br />Solids control equipments<br /><ul><li>Mud Cleaners
  73. 73. Combination of </li></ul>desander and <br />desilter mounted <br /> over a screening <br /> device. <br />
  74. 74. SITE OPERATIONS<br />Solids control equipments<br /><ul><li>The centrifuge
  75. 75. Separate solids by increasing the centrifugal force
  76. 76. Removal up to 2-5 micron
  77. 77. Bowl rotates between 2000-4000rpm
  78. 78. Capacity 50-250gpm
  79. 79. Useful for processing weighted fluid
  80. 80. Faster rotation to remove lower SG solids (silts)
  81. 81. Slower rotation to remove higher SG solids (barite)
  82. 82. Barite recovery process:
  83. 83. 1st centrifuge = Separate barite, liquid moves to the 2nd centrifuge
  84. 84. 2nd centrifuge = removes silt and return liquid portion back to mud</li></li></ul><li>SITE OPERATIONS<br />Solids control equipments<br />
  85. 85. SITE OPERATIONS<br />Mixing new mud (in premix tank)<br />Water (as required)<br /> Soda Ash (0.5 ppb)<br /> Caustic Soda (0.4 ppb) - pH 8.5-9.5<br /> Potassium Chloride (KCl) (5-10 ppb)<br /> Polymers for Fluid Loss control and rheology<br /> Barite (weighting agent) for mud density requirement (as required)<br />Premix Tank 2<br />Centrifuge Tank<br />Premix Tank 1<br />Pill Tank<br />Suction Tank 1<br />Suction Tank 2<br />Desilter Tank<br />Desander Tank<br />Sand Trap<br />Trip Tank<br />
  86. 86. SITE OPERATIONS<br />Pumping Hi-Vis & Slug<br /><ul><li>Slug is used to displace mud in stands of pipes prior POOH
  87. 87. Hi-Vis is pumped down hole to suspend cutting  during long hours of </li></ul> non-circulation and pipe rotation<br /><ul><li>Hi-Vis sweep is performed to lift cuttings downhole (increase efficiency </li></ul> of hole cleaning)<br /><ul><li>Transfer active mud to pill tank (40bbls)
  88. 88. Increase weight and viscosity by addition of barite and KMC-Zan</li></li></ul><li>SITE OPERATIONS<br />Assisted cementing jobs<br /><ul><li> Weighting up cement
  89. 89. Pumping the spacer fluid (50 bbl water) to displace mud
  90. 90. Treating mud with sodium bicarbonate (decrease hardness & pH)</li></li></ul><li>SITE OPERATIONS<br />Dump or Dilute<br />- Drilled solids content is high (PV & sand trap)  Dump<br /><ul><li> Mud Weight is high but drilled solids content is low  Dilute</li></li></ul><li>SITE OPERATIONS<br />Other chemical usage & observations<br /><ul><li> Drilling detergent – to prevent bit balling
  91. 91. Biocide – Prevent bacterias from spoiling the polymers
  92. 92. Caustic Soda – Used to increase pH (alkalinity) after long hours of no mud circulation
  93. 93. Washpipe – leak in drillstring or BHA – eventually lead to fishing</li></li></ul><li>FLUID SYSTEMS<br /><ul><li>Bentonite Mud (Gel Mud)
  94. 94. No inhibition
  95. 95. Lower cost
  96. 96. Suitable for surface drilling
  97. 97. High carrying capacity
  98. 98. Deep hole - Hole problems
  99. 99. pH 8-9
  100. 100. KCl Polymer
  101. 101. Moderately reactive shale
  102. 102. Cation exchange of Potassium ions with clay
  103. 103. High inhibition – reduce swelling/hydration
  104. 104. Upgradable to Sodium Silicate mud
  105. 105. KCl depletes over time
  106. 106. pH 8.5-9.5
  107. 107. KCl Sodium Silicate
  108. 108. Coats the cuttings and wellbore with a thin layer of silicate
  109. 109. Suitable for reactive shale
  110. 110. KCl & Silicate deplete over time
  111. 111. Higher cost
  112. 112. Protection against stuck pipe & balling
  113. 113. Enhanced inhibition
  114. 114. Ensures mechanical stability (micro fractures & unconsolidated formation)
  115. 115. pH 11.5-12.5</li></li></ul><li>MUD TESTING & EQUIPMENTS<br />Mud Weight test<br /><ul><li>Mud balance to determine the mud weight (in lb/gal) as specified by program
  116. 116. Place mud in mud cup
  117. 117. Rider – adjusted along the graduated scale with guidance of bubble vial
  118. 118. Accuracy +/- 0.1 ppg</li></li></ul><li>MUD TESTING & EQUIPMENTS<br />Funnel Viscosity<br /><ul><li>Marsh Funnel & beaker (1 quart)
  119. 119. Quick guide whether mud is thickening or thinning (YP)
  120. 120. Reading is influenced by gelation and density of mud
  121. 121. Calibration – water at 21 celcius (70 fahrenheit) = 26 sec/qt</li></li></ul><li>MUD TESTING & EQUIPMENTS<br />Rheology Test: PV & YP<br /><ul><li>6 speed viscometer
  122. 122. For determining the values of YP & PV
  123. 123. Rotor sleeve rotates at constant velocity (speed control by the switching gears)
  124. 124. Produce torque to inner bob – displacement of bob provide the reading (lb/sq.ft)
  125. 125. 600,300,200,100,6,3 rpm speeds
  126. 126. PV = 600rpm – 300rpm
  127. 127. YP = 300 rpm - PV</li></li></ul><li>MUD TESTING & EQUIPMENTS<br />Rheology Test: Gel Strength<br /><ul><li> 10 seconds / 10 minutes reading
  128. 128. 10 sec  600rpm for 30secs, leave for 10 secs, read 10-sec gel at 3rpm
  129. 129. 10 min  600rpm for 30secs, leave undisturbed for 10mins, take reading at 3rpm
  130. 130. Good gel is needed to suspend cuttings
  131. 131. Wide divergence between 10secs and 10mins reading indicate colloidal build up</li></li></ul><li>MUD TESTING & EQUIPMENTS<br />API filtrate<br /><ul><li> To know milliliters of filtrate lost under 100psi pressure
  132. 132. Procedure:
  133. 133. 100psi applied to the column of pressure cell using air compressor
  134. 134. 3 ½ inch diameter of filter paper placed in the bottom of pressure cell (build up of filter cake)
  135. 135. Amount of filtrate collected for 30 minutes, (ml/30min)</li></ul>Low filtrate volume  Thinner cakes, good fluid loss control in mud<br />High filtrate volume  Thicker cake, must treat mud with PAC-R, PAC-UL and starch to minimize fluid loss<br /><ul><li>Thick mud cakes leads to differentially stuck pipes </li></li></ul><li>MUD TESTING & EQUIPMENTS<br />pH, sand content & hardness test<br /><ul><li> pH test – uses pH paper to measure pH of filtrate
  136. 136. Sand content – Uses sand screen set kit to determine sand content in mud
  137. 137. Hardness test - To measure hardness of filtrate water. It is not good if the water is too hard, as polymer reactions cannot take place effectively. Chemicals needed are, 1 ml filtrate, a few drops of ammonia 30%, versanate hardness indicator, and EDTA (slowly releasing it). Mixture changes color from purple to wine red. </li></li></ul><li>MUD TESTING & EQUIPMENTS<br />KCl & Chloride Test<br /><ul><li>KCl Test -KCl Content determination by sodium perchlorate</li></ul> 1) Precipitating potassium <br /> 2) Centrifuging the precipitate<br /> 3) Compare the volume of precipitate over the graph to determine amount <br /> of KCl content left in mud<br /><ul><li>Chloride test - To know the concentration of chloride in the mud. Chemicals needed are 1 ml filtrate, a few drops of yellow chloride indicator and silver nitrate 0.282N (slowly releasing it). Mixture changes color from yellow to red.</li></li></ul><li>DISCUSSION<br />
  138. 138. DISCUSSION<br />Problem and Challenges<br />
  139. 139. DISCUSSION<br />Lesson Learnt<br />
  140. 140. DISCUSSION<br />Recommendations<br />
  141. 141. RECAP<br />Industrial internship objectives<br />Host company profile<br />Drilling fluids<br />Internship assignments, activities and site operations<br />Lesson learned and experience gained<br />Discussion & recommendation<br />Conclusion<br />
  142. 142. CONCLUSION<br />Expose students to real-life working experience, culture and industrial practices.<br />Practice theory learned during studies into working environment.<br /><ul><li>Students could gain the opportunity to work directly with industrial practitioners</li></ul>Acquaint UTP students especially from PE department with the Petroleum Industry<br />
  143. 143. THANK YOU<br />
  144. 144. Q & A<br />

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