ERICA : The EUROPEAN TILTROTOR Marco CICALE’ AGUSTA Coordinator of the ERICA Projects
SUMMARY <ul><li>THE ERICA TILTROTOR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Its innovative solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture...
WHY TILTROTOR? <ul><li>AIRPORT CONGESTION </li></ul>Airport Expansion Airport Efficiency Improvement <ul><li>Space </li></...
INNOVATIVE DESIGN TILT WING TILTROTOR ERICA
ERICA LAYOUT
INNOVATIVE DESIGN ERICA Structural Continuity of Tilting Mechanism Small Rotor Diameter Tiltable Wing
INNOVATIVE DESIGN Small rotor diameter: <ul><ul><li>improved safety:  landing in a/c mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enhan...
INNOVATIVE DESIGN Tiltable Wing <ul><ul><li>improved performance in helicopter mode ( low down-load ) </li></ul></ul><ul><...
INNOVATIVE DESIGN Rotor tilting mechanism structurally continuous <ul><ul><li>Simplification of System </li></ul></ul><ul>...
INNOVATIVE DESIGN Conversion Mode Nacelle Angle 90 o 0 o Helicopter Mode Aeroplane Mode
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS Point to Point Connection 5% Hover - 95% Cruise Productivity  +30% of present T/R High Speed (350Kts) ...
PERFORMANCE COMPARISON ERICA CONVENTIONAL T/R <ul><li>Power limits </li></ul><ul><li>Wing stall limits </li></ul>
SUMMARY <ul><li>THE ERICA TILTROTOR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Its innovative solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture...
TRISYD DRIVE SYSTEM &  TILTING MECHANISMS DART ADVANCED ROTOR  FOR TILT ROTOR ACT_TILT CONTROL SYSTEM  FOR TILT ROTOR ADYN...
<ul><li>All the projects are running (2000-200 6 ) </li></ul><ul><li>NICE-TRIP FP6 (2006-2010) </li></ul>Main Partners: AG...
TILT -Rotor Interactional  AERO dynamics PURPOSE <ul><ul><li>Validation and improvement of existing CFD tools </li></ul></...
Tiltrotor  A coustics,  DY namics and  N oise <ul><ul><li>Wind Tunnel Tests with the same TILTAERO model to study: </li></...
ADYN Carlo L. Bottasso, Lorenzo Trainelli, &quot;Aeroelastic Analysis of Tilt-Rotors  Using Finite Element Multibody Proce...
A ctive  C ontrol  T echnology for  TILT -rotor <ul><li>Define the architecture of the ERICA Flight Control System ( Fligh...
+ Tiltable Wing degree of freedom ACT-TILT
HANDLING QUALITIES ASSESSMENT ACT-TILT EC UoL NLR DLR WHL
D evelopment of an  A dvanced  R otor for  T iltrotor <ul><li>Design, manufacturing and test a new FULL SCALE hub,followin...
T ilt- R otor  I ntegrated drive  SY stem  D evelopment <ul><ul><li>Design, manufacturing and test a new drive system for ...
Nacelle integration  TRISYD Lubrication Test
Preparation for the 6 th  FRAMEWORK <ul><ul><li>INTEGRATION OF THE TECHNOLOGIES IN A WHIRL TOWER TEST  + POWERED SCALED WI...
SUMMARY <ul><li>THE ERICA TILTROTOR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Its innovative solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture...
TILTROTOR IN ATM <ul><li>THE TILTROTOR (T/R) AS THE SOLUTION FOR THE CONGESTION PROBLEM </li></ul><ul><li>T/R CAN OPERATE ...
TILTROTOR IN ATM PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE AIRPORT OPERATIONS NEW  REGULATIONS  CONNECTED WITH THE NEW TECHNOLOGY
PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE ACOUSTIC VIRTUAL NOISE (Non Acoustic)
PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE ACOUSTIC CAUSES  <ul><li>Rotors noise </li></ul><ul><li>Fountain effect (T/R) </li></ul><ul><li>Main rot...
PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE VIRTUAL NOISE  Is the helicopter  (T/R)  safe? Is it controllable? Perceived intrusion Different noise r...
NEW RULES THE NEW TECHNOLOGIES OF THE TILTROTOR NEEDS NEW REGULATIONS <ul><li>Nacelle Tilting Mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>...
NEW RULES DESIGN CERIFICATION PROCESS (  FTE F. Paolucci (ENAC), FTP Maj. G. Cito (ITAF)  ) Iterative Certification Proces...
AIRPORT OPERATIONS <ul><li>Objective : Remove IFR R/C & T/R from runway traffic by using their specific, non dependent, pr...
AIRPORT OPERATIONS Leaving ILS when RWY in sight  Visual Manoeuvre  Standard Separation A/C Separation R/C Separation R/C ...
AIRPORT OPERATIONS <ul><li>Combined use of  Helicopters and Tilt-Rotors  for Hub Feeder operations can increase passenger ...
OPEN QUESTIONS <ul><li>Which are the actions that Industries, Operators, Associations, Regulations Agencies should give th...
<ul><ul><li>THE AGUSTA ADVANCED TILTROTOR  ERICA  IS A STEP FORWARD FOR THE AIR TRANSPORT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THE R...
WELCOME ON BOARD
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Erica The European Tiltrotor

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Erica The European Tiltrotor

  1. 1. ERICA : The EUROPEAN TILTROTOR Marco CICALE’ AGUSTA Coordinator of the ERICA Projects
  2. 2. SUMMARY <ul><li>THE ERICA TILTROTOR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Its innovative solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CRITICAL TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiltaero, Adyn, Act-Tilt, Dart, Trysid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The VTOL Aircraft in the ATM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Public Acceptance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Airport Operations </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. WHY TILTROTOR? <ul><li>AIRPORT CONGESTION </li></ul>Airport Expansion Airport Efficiency Improvement <ul><li>Space </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Social Impact </li></ul>BEST SOLUTION: TILTROTOR
  4. 4. INNOVATIVE DESIGN TILT WING TILTROTOR ERICA
  5. 5. ERICA LAYOUT
  6. 6. INNOVATIVE DESIGN ERICA Structural Continuity of Tilting Mechanism Small Rotor Diameter Tiltable Wing
  7. 7. INNOVATIVE DESIGN Small rotor diameter: <ul><ul><li>improved safety: landing in a/c mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enhanced flight envelope ( whirl flutter delayed ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduction of systems weight ( rotors and wing ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increased efficiency and speed in A/C mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>higher productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>higher versatility ( aircraft mode take-off capability) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. INNOVATIVE DESIGN Tiltable Wing <ul><ul><li>improved performance in helicopter mode ( low down-load ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduction of rotor diameter permissible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conversion corridor enlargement ( improve HQ ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improved H/C mode autorotation capability ( improve HQ ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>slight weight penalties </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. INNOVATIVE DESIGN Rotor tilting mechanism structurally continuous <ul><ul><li>Simplification of System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nacelle’s Rotation Synchronising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanism no longer necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety & Reliability Improved </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. INNOVATIVE DESIGN Conversion Mode Nacelle Angle 90 o 0 o Helicopter Mode Aeroplane Mode
  11. 11. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS Point to Point Connection 5% Hover - 95% Cruise Productivity +30% of present T/R High Speed (350Kts) High Range (650NM) 19 - 22 Pax Cruise at high altitude (7500 m) VTOW 10000 kg-STOW 11000 kg Adaptability to different roles <ul><li>Search & Rescue </li></ul><ul><li>Paramilitary </li></ul><ul><li>Medevac </li></ul><ul><li>VIP </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate </li></ul>
  12. 12. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON ERICA CONVENTIONAL T/R <ul><li>Power limits </li></ul><ul><li>Wing stall limits </li></ul>
  13. 13. SUMMARY <ul><li>THE ERICA TILTROTOR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Its innovative solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CRITICAL TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiltaero, Adyn, Act-Tilt, Dart, Trysid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The VTOL Aircraft in the ATM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Public Acceptance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Airport Operations </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. TRISYD DRIVE SYSTEM & TILTING MECHANISMS DART ADVANCED ROTOR FOR TILT ROTOR ACT_TILT CONTROL SYSTEM FOR TILT ROTOR ADYN TILT ROTOR DYNAMICS AND NOISE EUROPEAN CTP TILTAERO INTERACTIONAL AERODYNAMICS TILT ROTOR European C ritical T echnology P rojects
  15. 15. <ul><li>All the projects are running (2000-200 6 ) </li></ul><ul><li>NICE-TRIP FP6 (2006-2010) </li></ul>Main Partners: AGUSTAWESTLAND EUROCOPTER (Aerospace Industries/ Research Centres/Univerities…) COSTS 38.5 Meuro (co-funded by EU) EUROPEAN CTP
  16. 16. TILT -Rotor Interactional AERO dynamics PURPOSE <ul><ul><li>Validation and improvement of existing CFD tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design, manufacturing and testing of a large scale powered half-span mock-up (Mach scaled) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feasibility studies for the design of a powered full-span mock-up </li></ul></ul>TILTAERO
  17. 17. Tiltrotor A coustics, DY namics and N oise <ul><ul><li>Wind Tunnel Tests with the same TILTAERO model to study: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dynamics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>noise </li></ul></ul></ul>ADYN PURPOSE
  18. 18. ADYN Carlo L. Bottasso, Lorenzo Trainelli, &quot;Aeroelastic Analysis of Tilt-Rotors Using Finite Element Multibody Procedures&quot;, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Aerospaziale, Politecnico di Milano, 2002. The whirl flutter instability ADYN
  19. 19. A ctive C ontrol T echnology for TILT -rotor <ul><li>Define the architecture of the ERICA Flight Control System ( Flight by Wire / Flight by Light ) </li></ul><ul><li>Define new Control Laws for the ERICA flight envelope considering also the additional degree of freedom of the tiltable wing </li></ul><ul><li>Validate, through pilot in the loop simulation, the new Control Laws </li></ul>PURPOSE ACT-TILT
  20. 20. + Tiltable Wing degree of freedom ACT-TILT
  21. 21. HANDLING QUALITIES ASSESSMENT ACT-TILT EC UoL NLR DLR WHL
  22. 22. D evelopment of an A dvanced R otor for T iltrotor <ul><li>Design, manufacturing and test a new FULL SCALE hub,following the dynamic requirements of the ERICA tiltrotor </li></ul><ul><li>Define and optimise the thecnology process </li></ul>PURPOSE DART
  23. 23. T ilt- R otor I ntegrated drive SY stem D evelopment <ul><ul><li>Design, manufacturing and test a new drive system for the ERICA tiltrotor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define the technology for the conversion systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define monitoring systems (HUMS) to reach the safety requirements of the ERICA project </li></ul></ul>PURPOSE TRISYD
  24. 24. Nacelle integration TRISYD Lubrication Test
  25. 25. Preparation for the 6 th FRAMEWORK <ul><ul><li>INTEGRATION OF THE TECHNOLOGIES IN A WHIRL TOWER TEST + POWERED SCALED WIND TUNNEL MODEL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AGUSTA-WESTLAND AND EUROCOPTER WILL BE THE LEADER OF THE INTEGRATED PROJECT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MANY OTHER INDUSTRIES, RESEARCH CENTRE AND UNIVERSITIES WILL BE ALSO INVOLVED ( EUROPEAN AND NOT ) </li></ul></ul>6 th FRAMEWORK PGM
  26. 26. SUMMARY <ul><li>THE ERICA TILTROTOR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Its innovative solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CRITICAL TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiltaero, Adyn, Act-Tilt, Dart, Trysid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The VTOL Aircraft in the ATM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Public Acceptance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Airport Operations </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. TILTROTOR IN ATM <ul><li>THE TILTROTOR (T/R) AS THE SOLUTION FOR THE CONGESTION PROBLEM </li></ul><ul><li>T/R CAN OPERATE IN ALL WEATHER CONDITIONS FROM AIRPORTS OR VERTIPORTS STRATEGICALLY LOCATED TO PROVIDE CONVENINET ACCESS TO OTHER TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS(TRAIN STATIONS, HIGHWAYS…) </li></ul><ul><li>VERTIPORTS: NEW ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS CENTERS </li></ul><ul><li>T/R CAN PROVIDE AIR SERVICE INTO HUB AIRPORTS TO FEED THE LARGER, LONG DISTANCE AIRCRAFT (A ROLE THAT COMMUTER TURBOPROPS PLAY TODAY) </li></ul><ul><li>T/R COULD DISPLACE A LARGE PERCENTAGE OF THE SMALL AIRPLANE FLIGHTS AND FREE UP THE SLOTS FOR LARGER AIRCRAFT </li></ul><ul><li>PART OF THE MONEY USED FOR NEW AIRPORTS COULD BE USED TO DEVELOP THE T/R SYSTEM: IT WOULD COST LESS </li></ul><ul><li>MORE OPTIONS FOR PASSENGERS DEPARTURES </li></ul>
  28. 28. TILTROTOR IN ATM PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE AIRPORT OPERATIONS NEW REGULATIONS CONNECTED WITH THE NEW TECHNOLOGY
  29. 29. PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE ACOUSTIC VIRTUAL NOISE (Non Acoustic)
  30. 30. PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE ACOUSTIC CAUSES <ul><li>Rotors noise </li></ul><ul><li>Fountain effect (T/R) </li></ul><ul><li>Main rotor wake/tail rotor interaction (H/C) </li></ul><ul><li>Blade vortex interactions (BVI) </li></ul>SOLUTIONS <ul><li>Tiltable Wing (T/R) </li></ul><ul><li>Present studies on the reduction of BVI </li></ul><ul><li>Active blade controls (flaps, HHC, IBC…) </li></ul><ul><li>Flying at heights greater than today (3000 ft above cities; 5000 ft above rural areas) </li></ul>FRIENDCOPTER
  31. 31. PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE VIRTUAL NOISE Is the helicopter (T/R) safe? Is it controllable? Perceived intrusion Different noise respect to the more com m on fixed wing noise Increase of the level of dB : +15/20 dB(A) SOLUTIONS <ul><li>Publicity Campaigns (Industries, Operators, Associations…) </li></ul><ul><li>Better public relations: understand the concerns & needs of each other </li></ul><ul><li>Heliports in noisy area </li></ul><ul><li>Re-routing, increase of flyover heights, operational procedures </li></ul>The Community Says:
  32. 32. NEW RULES THE NEW TECHNOLOGIES OF THE TILTROTOR NEEDS NEW REGULATIONS <ul><li>Nacelle Tilting Mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Quality Requirements in the Conversion Corridor </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Quality Requirements with FBW System </li></ul><ul><li>Handling Qualities Criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Conditions (Cat. A, …) </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Deck Design </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot Licence </li></ul>FAR25+29+SC
  33. 33. NEW RULES DESIGN CERIFICATION PROCESS ( FTE F. Paolucci (ENAC), FTP Maj. G. Cito (ITAF) ) Iterative Certification Process for a Live Certification Basis FLT TEST TEST RESULTS PROOF OF COMP. LIMITED OPERATIONAL CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION BASIS
  34. 34. AIRPORT OPERATIONS <ul><li>Objective : Remove IFR R/C & T/R from runway traffic by using their specific, non dependent, procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for the pilot: shortened approaches (time / fuel savings) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for the controller: removes “slow traffic” from RWY approach (easier A/C-R/C -T/R separation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for airport neighbours: less noise thanks to higher approach routes and steep final leg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for airport authorities: adds movements without contribution to RWY congestion (passenger throughput) </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. AIRPORT OPERATIONS Leaving ILS when RWY in sight Visual Manoeuvre Standard Separation A/C Separation R/C Separation R/C Go-around Current ILS Procedure SNI H H
  36. 36. AIRPORT OPERATIONS <ul><li>Combined use of Helicopters and Tilt-Rotors for Hub Feeder operations can increase passenger throughput </li></ul>SNI potential for future R/C operations <ul><li>NASA / Boeing Studies </li></ul>+20% to + 30% passenger throughput Provides 50% as much delay reduction as a new runway (NASA study)
  37. 37. OPEN QUESTIONS <ul><li>Which are the actions that Industries, Operators, Associations, Regulations Agencies should give themselves in order to reach the goal of the introduction of the VTOL aircraft in the ATM? </li></ul><ul><li>In the case of an SNI approach, what should be the minimum separation with the other traffic? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the required navigational performance of the SNI approach procedure and how sensitive is this procedure to items as weather, system failures…? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the requirements in terms of visually acquiring, observing and guiding rotary-wing traffic to separate them from other IFR fixed-wing traffic by the control tower? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the traffic controller need special equipment, algorithms, etc. in order to reduce the mental stress or the conflict-solving predictive capability? </li></ul><ul><li>What about the new regulations connected with the new technology (Nacelle Tilting Mech., Conversion, HQ, …) ? </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><ul><li>THE AGUSTA ADVANCED TILTROTOR ERICA IS A STEP FORWARD FOR THE AIR TRANSPORT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THE RUNNING CRITICAL TECHNOLOGY PROJECTS ALLOW TO REINFORCE THE EUROPEAN KNOWLEDGE IN THE DOMAIN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THE 6 th EUROPEAN FRAMEWORK PROGRAM WILL CONTRIBUTE TO THIS GLOBAL OBJECTIVE WITHIN A LARGE PARTNERSHIP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INDUSTRIES, OPERATORS, ASSOCIATIONS, REGULATION AGENCIES SHOULD GIVE THEIR EFFORT IN ORDER TO INTRODUCE THE VTOL IN THE ATM </li></ul></ul>CONCLUSIONS
  39. 39. WELCOME ON BOARD

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