• Variety is a specific set of ‘linguistic items’ or ‘human
speech patterns’ (presumably sounds, words, grammatical
features, etc.) which we can connect with some external
factor apparently, a geographical area or a social group.
(Hudson, 1996; Ferguson, 1972 and Wardhaugh, 2006)
• Examples : Canadian English, London English,
• Dialect: refers to a variety of a language that can signal
the speaker’s regional or social background.
• Dialect is a variety of language which differs
grammatically, phonologically and lexically from other
varieties, and which is associated with a particular
social class or status group.
• Examples : Australian dialect, Indian dialect.
Kinds of dialects
1. Regional Dialects
• A regional dialect is a variety associated with a
• Examples : Dialect brebes, Dialect tegal
• A register is a variety of a language used for a
particular purpose or in a particular social setting
• Registers can simply be described as variations of
the language according to its use, while the
dialect as a language variation based on users
registers on this concept is not limited to the
choice of words (such as the notion registers in
the traditional theory) but also includes the
choice of the use of text structure, and texture.
• Example : English journalist
• Style relates to the typical ways in which one
or more people do a particular thing.
• Examples : - Formal