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Java is evolving rapidly: Maven helps you staying on track

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Java evolution is getting faster these days, and that's a great thing. Nowadays, one jave version is deprecated every 2 years:
- Java 5:october 2009
- Java 6: february 2013
- Java 7: march 2015 (really? already?)
- Java 8: march 2017 (with that one, you'll discover new types of incompatibilities...)
And you, or your applications, how do you manage upgrades?

Come and see how Apache Maven and its tooling (Animal Sniffer, Toolchains, ...) help you upgrade with confidence, at your own pace and without headaches.

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Java is evolving rapidly: Maven helps you staying on track

  1. 1. CORINTHIA  HOTEL BUDAPEST,  HUNGARY – OCTOBER  1-­‐2,  2015  – Java is evolving rapidly: Maven helps you staying on track Hervé Boutemy - @hboutemy Arnaud Héritier - @aheritier
  2. 2. Goal With Apache Maven, learn how to manage Java evolutions quietly
  3. 3. Menu • Appetizer – Java duke and maven owl cocktail • Starter – Bytecode soup with its enforcer zest • Main dish – A piece of Animal Sniffer and its accompaniments • Dessert – The toolchain and its diligence of JDKs
  4. 4. Who are we?
  5. 5. Hervé Boutemy • Maven Committer since 2007, • Maven PMC Member since 2009, • Apache Foundation Member since 2011, • Maven PMC Chair since July 2014, • Gave a hand on practically every Apache Maven code, but more in depth on... • Encoding, Maven Ant Tasks, Modello, maven-site-plugin, Doxia, • Archetype, Plugin Tools, • maven-checkstyle-plugin,Toolchains, …
  6. 6. Arnaud Héritier • Maven Committer since 2004, • Maven PMC Member since 2005, • Apache Foundation Member since 2011, • I’m trying to not touch to the code... – But I’m talking a lot about Apache Maven ! http://git.io/jEFs Support  Engineer
  7. 7. What is it about?
  8. 8. Apache Maven and you • Who is using Maven? • Which version in general? – 3.3? – 3.2? – 3.1? – 3.0? – < 3.0?
  9. 9. We’ll learn you how to juggle Juggle with different Java versions (JDKs, JREs) To be able to use new features from recent tools And ensure compatibility against production target Java is 20 years old Version First  publication JDK  Alpha  and  Beta 1995 JDK  1.0 January,  1996 JDK  1.1 February,  1997 J2SE  1.2  (playground) December,  1998 J2SE  1.3  (kestrel) May,  2000 J2SE  1.4  (merlin) February,  2002 J2SE  5.0  (tiger) September,   2004 Java  SE  6  (mustang) December,  2006 Java  SE  7  (dolphin) July,  2011 Java  SE  8 March,  2014 Java  SE  9 Early  2016 6 7 8
  10. 10. Java and you • Who is mainly using – Version 9 to develop? – Version 8 to develop? – Version 7 to develop? – Version 6 to develop? – Version <6 to develop? – In production? – In production? – In production? – In production? – In production?
  11. 11. Java and you • Who is using many Java versions on his development workstation and switch on a regular basis? • Who is using a different Java version during development and production?
  12. 12. The JDK choice dilemma • Developer temptation: recent build tools, with more features, requiring recent JDK • Manager requirement: ensure compatibility with target environment: often quite old JRE (and the same on whole landscape?) • Miscellaneous strategies: – Conservatory: JDK = min( JRE<every apps> ) + old associated tools… – Courageous: for each app, switch JDK & associated tools – Player (unaware?): recent JDK – Serious: recent JDK + CI and deep tests, with good coverage – Smart: Maven + a few configurations
  13. 13. Java & Apache Maven Roadmaps: 2009
  14. 14. Java & Apache Maven Roadmaps: 2009 …a little bit later…
  15. 15. Java & Apache Maven Roadmaps: early 2014
  16. 16. Java & Apache Maven Roadmaps: nowadays Sources : http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/eol-­‐135779.html http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/java/jdk/lifecycle/ http://maven.apache.org/docs/history.html
  17. 17. Bytecode Version
  18. 18. Bytecode Version • Binary backward compatibility – JVM can execute old bytecode – but not newer bytecode, or… • java.lang.UnsupportedClassVersionError Java  8        =  52  (0x34) Java  7        =  51  (0x33) Java  6        =  50  (0x32) Java  5        =  49  (0x31) Java  1.4  =  48  (0x30) Java  1.3  =  47  (0x2F) Java  1.2  =  46  (0x2E) Java  1.1  =  45  (0x2D) .class  file  format • 4  bytes:  magic  number • 2  bytes:  minor  version • 2  bytes:  major  version
  19. 19. Demo
  20. 20. javac & bytecode version Javac – Default: bytecode version = JDK version – -target defines bytecode version
  21. 21. Maven & bytecode version • Maven allows to easily control the version of the bytecode used in the project build – By default: • maven-compiler-plugin sets –target 1.5 • independent from JDK used – maven-compiler-plugin’s target parameter • plugin or pluginManagement configuration • more compact: maven.compiler.target property
  22. 22. Maven & bytecode version • Maven allows also to verify the version of the bytecode used in project dependencies – enforceBytecodeVersion rule from maven-enforcer-plugin
  23. 23. Animal Sniffer
  24. 24. Demo
  25. 25. Animal Sniffer – why? • To check the classes and method signatures that your compiled code uses and verify that you have use only those classes and signatures available in the API you are targeting. Even  if  its  main  known  usage  is  to  verify   the  compatibility  with  JDK  APIs,  Animal   Sniffer  is  genericand  can  be  used  to   verify  any  API  after  having  generated  its   signatures.
  26. 26. Animal Sniffer Example – Using a JDK 8 to compile your code must use only APIs from Java 7 How? – Provided as 3 tools: a Maven plugin, an enforcer rule, an Ant task. – Must be executed on compiled classes. Limitation – Can verify only APIs signatures. – Doesn’t cover semantic • when an exception is thrown, … – Detects the issue but doesn’t allow to fix it.
  27. 27. Toolchains & JDK
  28. 28. Maven Toolchains: The problem • Nowadays JDK is chosen with build tools requirements in mind Must  swap  JDK  choice  priorities:  application  over  build JRE used by Maven & plugins JRE to execute the application JDK used in build tasks (javac…)
  29. 29. Maven Toolchains: The ultimate weapon • Allows to use a JDK to run “build” steps (compilation, tests execution, …) different from the JRE used to launch Maven and its plugins – You can use a recent JRE for Maven and its plugins – For each application, Maven uses the JDK version required by your project Allows  to  easily  jungle  between  various  JDKs  to  ensure  there  is  no   risk  for  the  targeted  application 6 7 8 JRE used by Maven & plugins JRE to execute the application JDK used in build tasks (javac…)
  30. 30. Demo
  31. 31. Maven Toolchains • Available since Maven 2.0.9 (2008/04) 1. Available tools are configured (path….) in the file ~/.m2/toolchains.xml 2. pom.xml configures the maven-toolchains- plugin to select the required tool with possibly some constraints (version,…) 3. “toolchain aware” plugins will automatically use the selected tool • Tools are configured to match the current environment and are homogeneous across plugins
  32. 32. Maven Toolchains & JDK • Toolchains is generic: can be used to manage any type of tool • <type>jdk</type> toolchain is directly integrated in Maven • “jdk-toolchain aware” plugins – m-compiler-p, m-javadoc-p, m-surefire-p, m-webstart-p, m-jarsigner-p, exec-maven-plugin, keytool-maven-plugin, … • Others toolchains are already existing – protobuf, netbeans, …
  33. 33. Toolchains recent news • maven-toolchains-plugin 1.1 (2014/11) – More readable execution logs – Documentation to write new custom types • Maven 3.3 (2015/3) – ${maven.home}/conf/toolchains.xml – A plugin can use another tool than the one selected by the maven-toolchains-plugin • maven-jdeps-plugin (in progress) – uses jdeps from recent JDKs (JDK 8 or 9)
  34. 34. Summary
  35. 35. Summary • With Java evolution going faster (Yeahhh) the need to mixup different versions of Java will be more important and will increase the risk of incompatibilities • With Maven you are ready to – Automatically verify the compatibility by using Animal Sniffer and the Enforcer – Use the right JDK targeted by your application by configuring the Toolchains
  36. 36. Demo - Bonus ● When JDK8 compiler optimizationsare creating a backward incompatibility ● New solution:JDK 9 javac -release option ● maven-jdeps-plugin
  37. 37. Resources • Animal Sniffer – http://mojohaus.org/animal-sniffer/ • Enforcer plugin – https://maven.apache.org/enforcer/maven- enforcer-plugin/ • Toolchains – https://maven.apache.org/guides/mini/guide- using-toolchains.html • Demos – https://github.com/MavenDemo/java-evolving-en
  38. 38. Q & A

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