Soy acf western 2011


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Learn how soy oil can answer trans-fat-free oil needs and how soy proteins can be incorporated into a healthy diet.

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  • My edits are in red
  • Chris, what do TGs do, nutritionally, functionally? Chris, what do TGs do, nutritionally, functionally? Chris, do we need to note the role of triglycerides nutritionally and functionally here?
  • Chris, what’s the diff. between gull and partial hydrogenation? Is there any way to show the regular non-hydrogenated molecule with the regular double bond also so they can see side-by-side difference?
  • Chris, what’s the diff. between gull and partial hydrogenation? Is there any way to show the regular non-hydrogenated molecule with the regular double bond also so they can see side-by-side difference?
  • I assume that you’ll go into what makes them low-lin (the breeding, aka “an agronomically based solution”), that there are various levels (<3%--Monsanto’s Vistive, Bunge’s Nutrium), ultra-low-lin (<1%--Asoyia’s and Iowa Natural’s). Also that some are non-GMO (Asoyia, Iowa Natural) and others aren’t (Monsanto, Bunge). And that some are considered “all-natural” because they’re processed with expeller pressing and physical refinement rather than conventional hexane extraction (it may matter to some of these guys given the NY market).
  • Chris, at first I thought I’d like you to consider using this slide instead of the one you have from Pam because it includes the low-lin. But then I realized that it calls out monos- instead of strictly oleic, and I don’t’ know that we can assume they’re measuring one-and-the-same. So….would there be a way you could add a bar in the Pam White slide that shows low-lin? You wouldn’t have to put a number inside the lin- bar (Pam’s slide doesn’t do that for purposes of objectivity). I’d do it exept I’m power-point impaired beyond the basics. Thanks.
  • Soy acf western 2011

    1. 1. Cooking with Healthy Fats & Proteins May 2, 2011 Chef Christopher Koetke CEC CCE Executive Director The School of Culinary Arts of Kendall College
    2. 2. Who is QUALISOY? <ul><li>A soybean industry collaboration aimed to develop healthier soybeans and soy oil, and reduce environmental impacts of livestock production. </li></ul><ul><li>QUALISOY’s Human Nutrition Goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better human health through improved soybean oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Today’s Trans-Fat-Free Oils </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low-Linolenic Soybean Oil </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High Oleic Soybean Oil </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. A Bit of Background… <ul><li>Soy originated in NE China as a wild plant at least 5000 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>In US, first animal feed, then oil extraction </li></ul><ul><li>Poor protein application </li></ul><ul><li>Popularity growth </li></ul><ul><li>Soy solutions—innovation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From Asian to American </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. A Closer Look at the Amazing Legume <ul><li>High protein content (38%) and complete protein </li></ul><ul><li>High oil content (18%) with essential fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic) </li></ul><ul><li>Contains lecithin </li></ul><ul><li>Rich in dietary fiber (15%) </li></ul><ul><li>Soluble Carbohydrates (15%) </li></ul>
    5. 5. … and Versatile <ul><li>Soy milk </li></ul><ul><li>Tofu </li></ul><ul><li>Soy nuts </li></ul><ul><li>Edamame </li></ul><ul><li>Natto </li></ul><ul><li>Soy sauce </li></ul><ul><li>Miso </li></ul><ul><li>Tempeh </li></ul><ul><li>Yuba </li></ul><ul><li>Soy yogurt </li></ul><ul><li>Soy grits </li></ul><ul><li>Soy milk powder </li></ul><ul><li>Whole bean </li></ul><ul><li>Protein concentrate </li></ul><ul><li>Soy cream cheese </li></ul><ul><li>Textured soy protein </li></ul><ul><li>Meat analogues </li></ul><ul><li>Oils </li></ul><ul><li>Shortenings </li></ul><ul><li>Protein isolate </li></ul><ul><li>Lecithin </li></ul><ul><li>Flour </li></ul><ul><li>Egg replacement </li></ul><ul><li>Okara </li></ul>
    6. 6. Not to Mention Non-Edible Uses of Soy <ul><li>Bio-diesel </li></ul><ul><li>Ink </li></ul><ul><li>Plastics </li></ul><ul><li>Paint </li></ul><ul><li>Crayons </li></ul><ul><li>Candles </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Solutions for our World <ul><li>Highly economical source of protein </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen fixing plant </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable source of protein </li></ul><ul><li>Not limited to one cuisine or one culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely versatile ingredient </li></ul><ul><li>Creative, cool, and chic! </li></ul>
    8. 8. Versatile Soy Building Blocks <ul><li>Whole beans </li></ul><ul><li>Soy milk </li></ul><ul><li>Coagulated soy milk </li></ul><ul><li>Fermented soy </li></ul><ul><li>Soy flour/protein </li></ul><ul><li>TVP </li></ul><ul><li>Soy oil </li></ul>
    9. 9. Breaking Apart the Bean The whole soybean The crush Soybean Oil -- Soy Flour (defatted or low fat) -- Soy Protein Concentrate -- Soy Protein Isolate Textured Vegetable Protein (TVP) Full Fat Soy Flour Soy milk Tofu and tofu products Fermented soy Shortenings and blends
    10. 10. Trans Fats and Oil Functionality <ul><li>Consumer confusion about trans fats—reduced attention </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial vs. natural trans fats </li></ul><ul><li>Legislation in foodservice!! </li></ul><ul><li>Baking industry has been hit hardest </li></ul><ul><li>Many solutions from soy produers </li></ul>
    11. 11. To understand trans-fats, we need some lipid science <ul><li>Lipids are mostly a molecule called a triglyceride </li></ul><ul><li>Triglycerides are made of 3 types of fatty acids </li></ul><ul><li>Most lipids are made of a combination of principally 5 different fatty acids </li></ul>
    12. 12. Fat 101: Triglycerides <ul><li>1 glycerol + 3 fatty acids = triglyceride </li></ul>A triglyceride is often composed of different types of fatty acids Triglycerides form the vast majority of fats commonly found in food
    13. 13. Lipid 101: Fatty Acids <ul><li>Three Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saturated—no double bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monounsaturated—1 double bond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyunsaturated—more than 1 double bond </li></ul></ul>c c c c c c c c c H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H c c c c H H H H c c c c c c c H H H H H H H H H H H H
    14. 14. Fat 101: The Double Bond <ul><li>The double bond is the weak point in the oil (i.e. rancidity) </li></ul><ul><li>When breaks, produces off-flavors and functionality is compromised </li></ul>c c c c c c H H H H H H H H
    15. 15. Fat 101: Hydrogenation <ul><li>Adding hydrogen to the double bond </li></ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>less susceptible to breakdown caused by heat abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less prone to rancidity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid fat characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Full hydrogenation reproduces saturated fats </li></ul>c c c c c c H H H H H H H H H H H H
    16. 16. Fat 101: Hydrogenation <ul><li>Partial hydrogenation—produces fatty acids in many combinations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saturated fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CIS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trans-fats </li></ul></ul>c c c c c c H H H H H H H H H H C C C C C C H H H H H H H H H H
    17. 17. Partially Hydrogenated Fats <ul><li>Fatty Acid make-up (generalization) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>24% Saturated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>37% Monounsaturated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7% Polyunsaturated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>32% Trans fats </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Oil 101—5 fatty acids <ul><li>Palmitic Acid (saturated) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very stable, negative health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals: use as little as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stearic Acid (saturated) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very stable, neutral health? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oleic Acid (monounsaturated) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stable, positive health attributes </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Oil 101—5 fatty acids <ul><li>Linoleic Acid (polyunsaturated) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unstable, positive heart health (omega-6) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good flavor, especially fried foods, at moderate levels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Linolenic Acid (polyunsaturated) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly unstable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive heart health (omega-3) </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Oil Comparisons
    21. 21. Eliminating Trans Fats in Culinary Applications <ul><li>Deep fried applications </li></ul><ul><li>Baked Goods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Substitutions of solid fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid fat alternatives </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Redesign the Soybean: Step 1, Low-lin oils <ul><li>A 28 year project to reduce 7% linolenic acid in soybean oil </li></ul><ul><li>Linolenic acid is highly unstable omega 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Low-Linolenic Soybean Oils (Low-Lin) </li></ul><ul><li>High Oleic Soybean Oils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>75% High Oleic Fatty Acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20% Reduction in Saturated Fat </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Redesign the Soybean: Step 2, Plenish High Oleic Oils <ul><li>Reduction in saturated fats (20% less) and increased oleic acid levels to improve health profile </li></ul><ul><li>Very stable oil: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fryer performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended shelf life for baked items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended shelf life for manufactured items </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Oil 101—Content Comparison 21 61 24 70 2005 Today
    25. 25. Whole Beans <ul><li>Edamame </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique variety </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tan soybeans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dried or canned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Black Soybeans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dried or canned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soy nuts </li></ul>
    26. 26. Whole Bean Utilization <ul><li>Savory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Puree </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sweet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Candied edamame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soy brittle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Addition to breads, muffins </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Soy Milk--“soy tea” <ul><li>Hot water extraction </li></ul><ul><li>Okara—baking additive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich source of protein and fiber </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Americanizing soy milk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Texture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beany flavors--lipoxygenase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweetening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flavoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Powdered </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Utilizations—savory and sweet </li></ul>
    28. 28. Coagulated Soy--Tofu Coagulating with calcium sulfate or magnesium chloride (nigari) Pressed (water packed or cotton) Extra firm, firm, medium, soft Silken Extra firm, firm, medium, soft Soy milk
    29. 29. <ul><li>Pressed </li></ul><ul><li>Savory: </li></ul><ul><li>Adding textures </li></ul><ul><li>Marinated </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-marinated tofu </li></ul><ul><li>Sweet: </li></ul><ul><li>Ingredient in yeast </li></ul><ul><li>and quick breads </li></ul><ul><li>Silken </li></ul><ul><li>Savory </li></ul><ul><li>No marinating </li></ul><ul><li>Very delicate </li></ul><ul><li>Puree </li></ul><ul><li>Sweet </li></ul><ul><li>Puree </li></ul><ul><li>Protein replacement </li></ul>Tofu Utilization
    30. 30. Fermented Soy <ul><li>Yogurt and cheese products </li></ul><ul><li>Soy sauce and miso </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Umami, salt, and a liquid ingredient that is pasteurized </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Miso </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Umami, salt, and a solid ingredient that is alive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tempeh </li></ul>
    31. 31. Tempeh <ul><li>Indonesian origin </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly savory application, moist heat methods </li></ul><ul><li>Highly nutritious </li></ul>Steamed soybeans (perhaps with other ingredients) Addition of acid and Fungus ( Rhizopus oligosporus) Forming and fermentation
    32. 32. Soy Protein Functionality <ul><li>Savory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emulsification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat absorption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extending </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sweet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein enhancement--lysine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bleaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce fat absorption </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Soy Flour <ul><li>Soy Flour </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No gluten </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>38-50% protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varieties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Full fat (20+%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low fat (5-6%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defatted (< 1%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roasted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enzyme activated </li></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Soy Flour Utilization <ul><li>10-15% replacement of wheat in yeast dough </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 40%replacement of wheat in short and chemical leavened dough </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce fat absorption in donuts (3%) </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce non-fat milk powder in formulas </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce egg in formulas </li></ul><ul><li>2-5% contribute tender crumb, even distribution of air cells, and water absorption </li></ul>
    35. 35. Soy Protein Concentrate <ul><li>75% protein (removal of soluble carbohyrates) </li></ul><ul><li>Highly functional in meat systems (whole muscle and ground) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emulsification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat absorption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2-3% added </li></ul>
    36. 36. Soy Protein Isolate <ul><li>90% protein (removal of soluble carbohydrates and dietary fiber) </li></ul><ul><li>Protein shakes </li></ul><ul><li>Addition to health foods </li></ul><ul><li>Specific application in meat industry </li></ul><ul><li>Strong water binding capacity </li></ul>
    37. 37. Textured Vegetable Protein <ul><li>ADVANTAGE: PRICE AND VERSATILITY </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing process </li></ul><ul><li>Considerable progress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dried—hydration needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soy protein meat analogues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value-added products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stranded </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Cooking with Healthy Fats & Proteins Handouts Soy Solutions to Trans Fats Soy & Your Health Soy Solutions for a Gluten Free Diet Soy Oil Culinary Curriculum Chef Christopher Koetke CEC CCE Executive Director The School of Culinary Arts of Kendall College [email_address]