Elements of Natural and Built Environments (Project One)


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Elements of Natural and Built Environments (Project One)

  1. 1. SEE : There are various types of TREES and different HEIGHT.There look very GREEN and NATURE.HEAR : There have CRICKETS,BIRDS and WATER FLOWING’s SOUND.TASTE : The taste of the natural are FRESH.SMELL : The smell of the natural are FRESH and NATURAL.FEEL : The feeling of the natural are COLD and FRESH.
  2. 2. SEE : The leaves are in GREEN COLOUR, DIFFERENT SHAPES andDIFFERENT SIZES.HEAR : When the leaves are blowing by the wind,its produceNATURES MURMURING WHISPER.TASTE : The taste of the leaves are BITTER.SMELL : The leaves are SMELLES.FEEL : The surface of the leaves are FLAT and SMOOTH.
  3. 3. SEE : The water in the river is very CLEARLY and SANDY.HEAR : The sound of WATER FLOWING produced.TASTE : The water in the river is TASTELESS.SMELL : The water in the river is SMELLESS.FEEL : The water in the river is FRESH and COLD.
  4. 4. SEE : The sand is very SMALL, TINY and IRREGULAR SHAPE.HEAR : The sand CANNOT produce any SOUND.TASTE : The sand is TASTELESS.SMELL : The sand is SMELLESS.FEEL : Different PLACE (SAND IN WATER or ON THE GROUND) ofsand are different FEELING (SMOOTH or ROUGH).
  5. 5. SEE : The rocks are IRREGULAR SHAPES and DIFFERENT SIZES.HEAR : The rocks can produce a LITTLE SOUND when we knock itby hand.TASTE : The rocks are TASTELESS.SMELL : The rocks are SMELLESS.FEEL : SMALLER size of the rocks have SMOOTH SURFACE andBIGGER size of the rocks have ROUGH SURFACE.
  6. 6. Taro is a common name for the corms and tubers of several plants inthe Araceae family. Of these, Colocasia esculenta is the most widely cultivatedand the subject of this article. More specifically, this article describes thedasheen form of taro; another variety of taro is known as eddoe.Taro is native to southeast Asia. It is a perennial, tropical plant primarily grown asa root vegetable for its edible starchy corm, and as a leaf vegetable. It is a foodstaple in African, Oceanic and Asian cultures and is believed to have been one ofthe earliest cultivated plants. It is known by many local names and often referredto as elephant ears when grown as an ornamental plant.
  7. 7. SEE : The Taro is very SHORT and BIG.HEAR : The leaves will produce a LITTLE SOUNDS when blowing by thewind.TASTE : The leaves of Taro is BITTER.SMELL : The Taro is SMELLES.FEEL : The leaves of Taro are SMOOTH and FLAT when touched it.
  8. 8. Taro root is often used in a similar fashion to a potato, but in fact hasbetter NUTRITIONAL qualities than a potato. It has almost three timesthe DIETARY FIBER, which is important for proper digestive health andregularity. FIBER can also fill you up and make you feel less hungry withfewer calories. Taro root has a low GLYCEMIC INDEX, as opposed topotato which has a high GLYCEMIC INDEX. A low GLYCEMIC INDEXmeans that taro effects BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS slowly, without the peaksand crashes of a high GLYCEMIC INDEX, which lead to increased hungerlater on. Eating a diet of low GLYCEMIC INDEX foods can also helpprevent DIABETES.Taro is NUTRICIOUS, and is an excellent source of POTASSIUM, which isan essential mineral for many bodily functions. Taro also contains someCALCIUM, VITAMIN C, VITAMIN E and VITAMIN B, as well asMAGNESIUM, MANGANESE and COPPER. Taro leaves contain goodamounts of VITAMIN A and VITAMIN C, FIBER and a relatively highamount of PROTEIN.
  9. 9. Taro can be grown in paddy fields where water is abundant or in upland situations wherewater is supplied by rainfall or supplemental irrigation. Taro is one of the few crops (alongwith rice and lotus) that can be grown under flooded conditions. This is due to air spacesin the petiole, which permit underwater gaseous exchange with the atmosphere. For amaximum dissolved oxygen supply, the water should be cool and flowing. Warm, stagnantwater causes basal rotting. For maximum yields, the water level should be controlled sothat the base of the plant is always under water.Flooded cultivation has some advantages over dry-land cultivation: higher yields (aboutdouble), out-of-season production (which may result in higher prices), and weed control(which flooding facilitates). On the other hand, in flooded production systems tarorequires a longer maturation period, investment in infrastructure, and higher operationalcosts, and monoculture is likely.Like most root crops, taro and eddoes do well in deep, moist or even swampy soils wherethe annual rainfall exceeds 250 cm. Eddoes are more resistant to drought and cold. Thecrop attains maturity within six to twelve months after planting in dry-land cultivation andafter twelve to fifteen months in wetland cultivation. The crop is harvested when the plantheight decreases and the leaves turn yellow. These signals are usually less distinct inflooded taro cultivation.
  10. 10. The plant is inedible when raw and considered toxic due to thepresence of calcium oxalate crystals, typically as raphides. The toxin isminimized by cooking, especially with a pinch of baking soda. It canalso be reduced by steeping taro roots in cold water overnight. Calciumoxalate is highly insoluble and contributes to kidney stones. It has beenrecommended to consume milk or other calcium-rich foods togetherwith taro.
  11. 11. The corms, which have a light purple color due to phenolicpigments,are roasted, baked or boiled, and the natural sugars give asweet nutty flavor.The starch is easily digestible, and since the grains are fine and small itis often used for baby food.The leaves are a good source of vitamins A and C and contain moreprotein than the corms.
  12. 12. The Ulysses butterfly (Papilio ulysses), also known as the BlueMountain Butterfly or the Blue Mountain Swallowtail, is alarge swallowtail butterfly, endemic to Australasia.This butterfly is used as an emblem for Queensland tourism.
  13. 13. The Ulysses butterfly typically has a wingspan of about 14 cm (5.5 in), but dependingon subspecies has some variations in size. The upperside of the wings are an iridescentelectric blue; the underside is a more subdued black and brown. The colours areproduced by the microscopic structure of the scales.
  14. 14. SEE : Size of Papilio Ulysses are BIGGER among the BUTTERFLIES. They have 6legs and 2 eyes.They have 2 long ANTHENAS.HEAR : Papilio Ulysses CANNOT make SOUND.TASTE : It tastes FISHY and SHRIMPHY.SMELL : Papilio Ulysses smells like DRY GRASS.FEEL : Papilio Ulysses has SMOOTH surface.
  15. 15. The vision of Papilio Ulysses changes radically in their different stages oflife. Caterpillars can barely see at all. They have simple eyes (ocelli)which can only differentiate dark from light; they cannot form an image.They are composed of photoreceptors (light-sensitive cells) andpigments. Most caterpillars have a semi-circular ring of six ocelli oneach side of the head. Papilio Ulysses have compound eyes and simpleeyes. These eyes are made up of many hexagonal lens/corneas whichfocus light from each part of the insects field of view onto a rhabdome(the equivalent of our retina). An optic nerve then carries thisinformation to the insects brain. They see very differently from us; theycan see ultraviolet rays (which are invisible to us).
  16. 16. Papilio Ulyssess antennae, palps, legs,and many other parts of the bodyare studded with sense receptors that are used to smell.The sense of smell is used for finding food (usually flower nectar), andfor finding mates (the female smelling the males pheromones).Papilio Ulyssess feet have sense organs that can taste the sugar innectar, letting it know if something is good to eat or not.Some females also taste host plants (using organs on their legs) in orderto find appropriate places to lay their eggs.These receptors (called chemoreceptors) are nerve cells on the bodyssurface which react to certain chemicals.We have similar receptors in our nose and on our tongue.
  17. 17. ConservationThe Ulysses butterfly inhabits tropical rainforest areas and suburban gardens. It isprotected by the Australian government, although the species is not endangered. In thepast, this butterfly had been threatened but planting Pink Flowered Doughwood hasincreased its numbers. Reduction in the number of the Euodia trees, a tree heavily usedfor laying eggs and for leaves eaten by caterpillars, may threaten the survival of thisbutterfly. Females favour small trees up to 2 metres tall to lay their eggs.DietFoods for this butterfly include: kerosene wood, a variety of citrus plants, and Euodia.The Ulysses butterflys favorite food plant is the Pink Flowered Doughwood, a tree withclusters of small pink flowers growing straight out of the branches.
  18. 18. The female of the species is different from the male in that she haslittle crescents of blue in the back, upside sections of her hind wings,where there is only black for males.When the butterfly is perched the intense blue of its wings is hiddenby the plainer brown under side of its wings, helping it to blendin with its surroundings.When in flight, the butterfly can be seen hundreds of metres away assudden bright blue flashes.Males are strongly attracted to the colour blue, including blueobjects which are sometimes mistaken for females.
  19. 19. An ecosystem is a community of living organisms (plants, animalsand microbes) in conjunction with the non-living components oftheir environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interactingas a system. These biotic and abiotic components are regarded aslinked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Asecosystems are defined by the network of interactions amongorganisms, and between organisms and their environment, they cancome in any size but usually encompass specific, limited spaces(although some scientists say that the entire planet is an ecosystem).
  20. 20. Energy, water, nitrogen and soil minerals are other essential abiotic components of anecosystem. The energy that flows through ecosystems is obtained primarily from the sun.It generally enters the system through photosynthesis, a process that alsocaptures carbon from the atmosphere. By feeding on plants and on oneanother, animals play an important role in the movement of matter and energy throughthe system. They also influence the quantity of plant and microbial biomass present. Bybreaking down dead organic matter, decomposers release carbon back to theatmosphere and facilitate nutrient cycling by converting nutrients stored in dead biomassback to a form that can be readily used by plants and other microbes.
  21. 21. Ecosystems are controlled both by external and internal factors. External factors suchas climate, the parent material which forms the soil and topography, control the overallstructure of an ecosystem and the way things work within it, but are not themselvesinfluenced by the ecosystem. Other external factors include time and potential biota.Ecosystems are dynamic entities—invariably, they are subject to periodic disturbancesand are in the process of recovering from some past disturbance. Ecosystems in similarenvironments that are located in different parts of the world can end up doing thingsvery differently simply because they have different pools of species present.The introduction of non-native species can cause substantial shifts in ecosystemfunction. Internal factors not only control ecosystem processes but are also controlled bythem and are often subject to feedback loops. While the resource inputs are generallycontrolled by external processes like climate and parent material, the availability of theseresources within the ecosystem is controlled by internal factors like decomposition, rootcompetition or shading. Other internal factors include disturbance, succession and thetypes of species present. Although humans exist and operate within ecosystems, theircumulative effects are large enough to influence external factors like climate.
  22. 22. Biodiversity affects ecosystem function, as do the processesof disturbance and succession. Ecosystems provide a variety ofgoods and services upon which people depend; the principlesof ecosystem management suggest that rather than managingindividual species, natural resources should be managed at the levelof the ecosystem itself. Classifying ecosystems into ecologicallyhomogeneous units is an important step towards effectiveecosystem management, but there is no single, agreed-upon way todo this.
  23. 23. Energy and carbon enter ecosystems through photosynthesis, are incorporated intoliving tissue, transferred to other organisms that feed on the living and dead plantmatter, and eventually released through respiration. Most mineral nutrients, on theother hand, are recycled within ecosystems.Ecosystems are controlled both by external and internal factors. External factors,also called state factors, control the overall structure of an ecosystem and the waythings work within it, but are not themselves influenced by the ecosystem. The mostimportant of these is climate. Climate determines the biome in which the ecosystemis embedded. Rainfall patterns and temperature seasonality determine the amount ofwater available to the ecosystem and the supply of energy available (by influencingphotosynthesis). Parent material, the underlying geological material that gives rise tosoils, determines the nature of the soils present, and influences the supply ofmineral nutrients. Topography also controls ecosystem processes by affecting thingslike microclimate, soil development and the movement of water through a system.This may be the difference between the ecosystem present in wetland situated in asmall depression on the landscape, and one present on an adjacent steep hillside.
  24. 24. Other external factors that play an important role in ecosystem functioning includetime and potential biota. Ecosystems are dynamic entities—invariably, they are subjectto periodic disturbances and are in the process of recovering from some pastdisturbance. Time plays a role in the development of soil from bare rock andthe recovery of a community from disturbance. Similarly, the set of organisms that canpotentially be present in an area can also have a major impact on ecosystems.Ecosystems in similar environments that are located in different parts of the world canend up doing things very differently simply because they have different pools ofspecies present. The introduction of non-native species can cause substantial shifts inecosystem function.Unlike external factors, internal factors in ecosystems not only control ecosystemprocesses, but are also controlled by them. Consequently, they are often subjectto feedback loops. While the resource inputs are generally controlled by externalprocesses like climate and parent material, the availability of these resources withinthe ecosystem is controlled by internal factors like decomposition, root competition orshading. Other factors like disturbance, succession or the types of species present arealso internal factors. Human activities are important in almost all ecosystems. Althoughhumans exist and operate within ecosystems, their cumulative effects are large enoughto influence external factors like climate.