What is a Plasmid a small circle of bacterial DNA that is independent of the main bacterial chromosome. Plasmids often contain genes for drug resistances and can be transmitted between bacteria of the same and different species: used in genetic engineering
Where are plasmids Recombinant DNA Genetic Engineering Occur naturally in bacteria and yeast Sold individually Used for cloning Genetically altered organisms In your DNA
History of plasmids 1903- Walter S. Sutton and Theodor Boveri think there are hereditary units on chromosomes. 1910-1950- Many scientists expand the thought of Walter and Theodor. Expand on E Coli mating and beliefs about matings and relationships with chromosomes
History of Plasmids 1952- Joshua Lederberg suggests name “Plasmid” 1962- Circular DNA is found(circle is the shape of a plasmid) Modern Research- Used in DNA replication(cloning) and also used to genetically alter organisms through with recombinant DNA
Different types R Plasmids- carry antibiotic resistance traits Col Plasmids- produce bacteriocins F Plasmids- needs fertility system to work Episomes- help integrate into main chromosome producing a greater chance of the transfer of chromosomes with other bacteria Virulence plasmids- produces toxins damaging the host organism
Recombinant DNA Plasmids are used as a part of Recombinant DNA Recombinant DNA takes a plasmid out of an organism and places it into another that may not contain the trait contained by the plasmid
Basics of Plasmid animation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GNMJ BMtKKWU
pGreen http://www.pgreen.ac.uk/a_pls_fr.htm This link will help describe a type of plasmid called pGreen. Drag the mouse along the ring to learn about the plasmid.