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# Lec 07 image enhancement in frequency domain i

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### Lec 07 image enhancement in frequency domain i

1. 1. Digital Image ProcessingDigital Image Processing Lecture 7:Lecture 7: Image Enhancement inImage Enhancement in Frequency Domain-IFrequency Domain-I Naveed Ejaz
2. 2. Introduction
3. 3. Background (Fourier Series)  Any function that periodically repeats itself can be expressed as the sum of sines and cosines of different frequencies each multiplied by a different coefficient  This sum is known as Fourier Series  It does not matter how complicated the function is; as long as it is periodic and meet some mild conditions it can be represented by such as a sum  It was a revolutionary discovery
4. 4. What is the difference between fourier series and fourier transform? The Fourier series is an expression of a pattern (such as an electrical waveform or signal) in terms of a group of sine or cosine waves of different frequencies and amplitude. This is the frequency domain. The Fourier transform is the process or function used to convert from time domain (example: voltage samples over time, as you see on an oscilloscope) to the frequency domain, which you see on a graphic equalizer or spectrum analyzer)
5. 5. Background (Fourier Transform)  Even functions that are not periodic (but whose area under the curve is finite) can be expressed as the integrals of sines and cosines multiplied by a weighing function  This is known as Fourier Transform  A function expressed in either a Fourier Series or transform can be reconstructed completely via an inverse process with no loss of information  This is one of the important characteristics of these representations because they allow us to work in the Fourier Domain and then return to the original domain of the function
6. 6. Fourier Transform • ‘Fourier Transform’ transforms one function into another domain , which is called the frequency domain representation of the original function • The original function is often a function in the Time domain • In image Processing the original function is in the Spatial Domain • The term Fourier transform can refer to either the Frequency domain representation of a function or to the process/formula that "transforms" one function into the other.
7. 7. Our Interest in Fourier Transform • We will be dealing only with functions (images) of finite duration so we will be interested only in Fourier Transform
8. 8. Applications of Fourier Transforms  1-D Fourier transforms are used in Signal Processing  2-D Fourier transforms are used in Image Processing  3-D Fourier transforms are used in Computer Vision  Applications of Fourier transforms in Image processing: – – Image enhancement, – Image restoration, – Image encoding / decoding, – Image description
9. 9. One Dimensional Fourier Transform and its Inverse  The Fourier transform F (u) of a single variable, continuous function f (x) is  Given F(u) we can obtain f (x) by means of the Inverse Fourier Transform
10. 10. One Dimensional Fourier Transform and its Inverse  The Fourier transform F (u) of a single variable, continuous function f (x) is  Given F(u) we can obtain f (x) by means of the Inverse Fourier Transform
11. 11. Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFT) 1-D DFT for M samples is given as The Inverse Fourier transform in 1-D is given as
12. 12. Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFT) 1-D DFT for M samples is given as The inverse Fourier transform in 1-D is given as
13. 13. Two Dimensional Fourier Transform and its Inverse  The Fourier transform F (u,v) of a two variable, continuous function f (x,y) is  Given F(u,v) we can obtain f (x,y) by means of the Inverse Fourier Transform
14. 14. 2-D DFT
15. 15. Fourier Transform
16. 16. 2-D DFT