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Understanding visual impairment
There are many different types of vision loss, ranging from mild vision impairment to total blindness. These can
be caused by various conditions and diseases, including as the result of an accident.
What are the symptoms of visual impairment?
In babies:
•eyes move quickly from side to side (nystagmus), jerk or wander randomly
•eyes don’t follow your face or an object, or they don’t seem to make eye contact
•eyes don’t react to bright light being turned on in the room
•turn or tilt their head or cover one eye when looking closely at things
•tired after reading, drawing or playing handheld games
•better vision during the day
•crossed or turned eyes or a squint (lazy eye)
•seem clumsy – for example, knocking things over or tripping often.
In older children:
•hold things up close to their face
•frequent tiredness/eye rubbing
•pupils seem white or cloudy rather than black
•eyes don’t appear straight but turn towards the nose or drift outwards.
Facts about visual impairment
A person with vision impairment or low vision does have some vision, however their vision loss is severe
enough to affect their ability to perform vocational, recreational and/or social tasks. Vision of this nature
can’t usually be corrected to normal vision by regular glasses.
•A person who is totally blind has no measurable or useable vision, and no light perception.
•Legally blind is a term used by government to identify people who are eligible for special benefits and
services.
•Visual conditions in children may be present at birth, or occur at any time from disease or accident or be part
of a medical condition or syndrome.
Common types of visual impairment
•Loss of Central Vision. The loss of central vision creates a blur or blindspot, but side (peripheral) vision remains
intact. ...
•Loss of Peripheral (Side) Vision. ...
•Blurred Vision. ...
•Generalized Haze. ...
•Extreme Light Sensitivity. ...
•Night Blindness
What are the four 4 classifications of visual impairment?
Mild –visual acuity worse than 6/12 to 6/18. Moderate –visual acuity worse than 6/18 to 6/60. Severe –visual acuity
worse than 6/60 to 3/60. Blindness –visual acuity worse than 3/60.
What is legally blind vision?
Visual acuity less than 20/200 is considered legally blind, but to actually fit the definition, the person must not be
able to attain 20/200 vision even with prescription eyewear
Causes of vision impairment
Vision may be impaired due to multiple reasons. These could be due to eye damage, failure of the brain to receive
and read the visual cues sent by the eyes etc.
Underlying diseases may also cause visual impairment. The commonest cause is diabetic retinopathy, age-related
macular degeneration, formation of cataracts and raised
Mobility canes are a form of mobility aid that enable blind or visually impaired people to go about their
daily business when out and about, especially in unfamiliar areas. White mobility canes are used by
many people who have a visual impairment.
A person who is not able to hear as well as someone with normal hearing – hearing thresholds of 20 dB
or better in both ears – is said to have hearing loss. Hearing loss may be mild, moderate, severe, or
profound.
Hearing impairment
Hearing loss vs. deafness
It is important to distinguish between the different levels of hearing loss.
Hearing loss: This is a reduced ability to hear sounds in the same way as other people.
Deafness: This occurs when a person cannot understand speech through hearing, even when sound is amplified.
Four levels of deafness
There are four levels of deafness or hearing impairment. These are:
•Mild deafness or mild hearing impairment: The person can only detect sounds between 25 and 29 decibels
(dB). They may find it hard to understand the words other people are saying, especially if there is a lot of
background noise.
•Moderate deafness or moderate hearing impairment: The person can only detect sounds between 40 and
69 dB. Following a conversation using hearing alone is very difficult without using a hearing aid.
•Severe deafness: The person only hears sounds above 70 to 89 dB. A severely deaf person must either lip-
read or use sign language in order to communicate, even if they have a hearing aid.
•Profound deafness: Anybody who cannot hear a sound below 90dB has profound deafness. Some people
with profound deafness cannot hear anything at all, at any decibel level. Communication is carried out using
sign language, lip-reading, or reading and writing.
Speech Impediment
A speech impediment happens when your child’s mouth, jaw, tongue and vocal tract can’t work
recognizable words. Left untreated, a speech impediment can make it difficult for children to learn to
Speech therapy can make a significant difference for children whose speech impediment isn't related to
A speech impairment affects people who have problems speaking in a regular tone of voice or tempo.
Speech impairments make it hard for people to communicate properly, and they can happen in both
children and adults.
These disorders can cause frustration and embarrassment to the person suffering from them.
There are three general categories of speech impairment:
•Fluency disorder. This type can be described as an unusual repetition of sounds or rhythm.
•Voice disorder. A voice disorder means you have an atypical tone of voice. It could be an unusual pitch,
quality, resonance, or volume.
•Articulation disorder. If you have an articulation disorder, you might distort certain sounds. You could
also fully omit sounds.
There are three general categories of speech impairment:
•Fluency disorder. This type can be described as an unusual repetition of sounds or rhythm.
•Voice disorder. A voice disorder means you have an atypical tone of voice. It could be an unusual pitch, quality,
pitch, quality, resonance, or volume.
•Articulation disorder. If you have an articulation disorder, you might distort certain sounds.You could also fully omit
could also fully omit sounds.
Health IssuesThat Affect Speech Impairment
Other than childhood speech impairments, there are a range of reasons you could get one in your adult years.They can
happen due to a traumatic event, illness, or surgery.
Dysarthria, aphasia, and voice disturbances can happen in adulthood, and are usually due to these medical events.
Aphasia. Aphasia is the loss of ability to understand words, spoken or written.There are many types of aphasia. It can
happen after a stroke or if a tumor reaches the part of the brain where language is processed.
Medical issues that can cause aphasia:
•Dementia
•Head trauma
•Stroke
•Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
•Brain tumor
•Alzheimer’s disease
Dysarthria. Dysarthria is usually caused by a nerve problem. The person suffering from it loses the
ability to make certain sounds or might have poor pronunciation. It can also affect your ability to
larynx, lips, and vocal chords.
Medical issues that can cause dysarthria:
•Facial trauma
•Head trauma
•Diseases that affect your nervous system
•Stroke
•Side effects of certain medication
•Alcoholic intoxication
•Dementia
•Dentures that don’t fit properly
•Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
Understanding Speech Impairments
Having a speech impairment can be a very frustrating and embarrassing experience for the person
important to be patient and understanding when communicating.
Try the following tips to improve communication and foster an accepting environment with
impairment:
•Speak slowly and use hand gestures
•Keep a pen and paper handy in case it’s needed to communicate
•Maintain a calm environment free of stimulating sounds
•Use simple phrases when you speak
•Use your normal tone of voice
Consulting with a mental health care provider can help with feelings of anger and depression that
speech impairments.
Down syndrome, trisomy 21, is the
most common autosomal trisomy,
and commonest identifiable cause
of learning disability.
Despite current prenatal screening
practice birth prevalence continues
to be around 1/1000 live births
Down‟s syndrome
Magnesium sulfate (used for tocolysis for preterm labour,
and to increase the seizure threshold in mothers with pre
eclampsia) may reduce the risk of CP according to some
studies, but further research is needed before it is used
specifically as a neuroprotective agent for preterm births.
Antibiotics used to treat bacterial vaginosis may reduce
the rate of preterm delivery. In women with premature
rupture of membranes, antibiotics reduce the risk of
chorioamnionitis.
Corticosteroids reduce the risk of CP, as steroids inhibit
cytokine production, thus preventing PVL.
Alzheimer's disease is a brain disorder that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills and, eventually, the ability to
carry out the simplest tasks. In most people with the disease — those with the late-onset type symptoms first appear in
their mid-60sAlzheimer’
Alzheimer's disease
Get regular medical care
Make regular appointments with
your primary care doctor or
specialist (neurologist,
neuropsychiatrist, geriatric
psychiatrist).
Consider going to a memory
disorders clinic. Ask your doctor
for a referral if desired
Find local services and support
Find local services by contacting
Eldercare Locator.
Do some legal, financial, and long-term
care planning
•Get information to help you plan.
•Prepare or update your will, living will,
power of attorney, and financial power of
Learn about care you may need in the
how to pay for it.
•Explore getting help to pay for medicines,
housing, transportation, and more.
Get help as needed with day-to-day tasks
•Use simple memory aids like a notepad or sticky
notes to jot down reminders, a pillbox to keep
medications organized, and a calendar to record
appointments.
•Ask family members or friends or find local services
to help with routine tasks, such as cooking, paying
bills, transportation, or shopping.
•Consider using technology solutions for medication
management, safety (e.g., emergency response, door
alarms), and other care.
Be safe at home
•Get home-safety tips.
•Ask your doctor to order a home-safety evaluation
and recommend a home health care agency to
conduct it. Medicare may cover the cost.
•Consider wearing a medical ID bracelet or necklace
in case you get los
Stay safe on the road
•Talk with your doctor if you become confused, get
lost, or need lots of help with directions, or if others
worry about your driving.
•Get a driving evaluation. Ask your doctor for names
of driving evaluators,
Consider participating in a clinical trial
•Ask your doctor about trials or studies.
•Contact an Alzheimer's Disease Research
Center for assessment and potential
opportunities.
•Search for a clinical trial or study near
• The Alzheimers.gov Clinical Trials
•Learn more about clinical tri
Stay healthy
•Be active! Getting exercise helps people with
Alzheimer's feel better and helps keep their muscles,
joints, and heart in good shape.
•Eat a well-balanced diet that includes fruits,
vegetables, and whole grains.
•Continue to enjoy visits with family and friends,
hobbies, and outings.
If you live alone
•Identify someone who can visit you regularly and be
an emergency contact.
•If you are at risk of falling, order an emergency
response system. A special pendant or bracelet lets
you summon help if you fall and can't reach the
phone.
•Consider working with an occupational therapist.
This person can teach you ways to stay independent.
Ask your doctor for more information.
•Stick with familiar places, people, and routines.
Simplify your life.
DEMENTIA
Dementia is the loss of cognitive functioning — thinking, remembering, and reasoning — to such an extent
that it interferes with a person's daily life and activities.
Lewy Body Dementia (LBD) is another form of
dementia that causes changes in thinking,
behavior, and movement.
LBD is caused by abnormal deposits of a protein
called alpha-synuclein in the brain. These
deposits, called Lewy bodies, can lead to
problems with thinking, movement, behavior, and
mood. For example, symptoms may include
changes in alertness and attention, hallucinations,
tremor, muscle stiffness, sleep problems, and
memory loss.
The two types of Lewy Body Dementia are:
•Dementia with Lewy bodies, in which cognitive
symptoms appear within a year of movement
problems
•Parkinson’s disease dementia, in which
cognitive problems develop more than a year after
the onset of movement problems
what is Parkinson’s syndrome
Parkinson's disease is a brain disorder that causes unintended or uncontrollable movements, such as
shaking, stiffness, and difficulty with balance and coordination. Symptoms usually begin gradually and
worsen over time. As the disease progresses, people may have difficulty walking and talking.
What causes Parkinson’s disease?
The most prominent signs and symptoms of Parkinson’s disease occur when nerve cells in the basal
the brain that controls movement, become impaired and/or die.
Normally, these nerve cells, or neurons, produce an important brain chemical known as dopamine.
die or become impaired, they produce less dopamine, which causes the movement problems
disease. Scientists still do not know what causes the neurons to die.
People with Parkinson’s disease also lose the nerve endings
that produce norepinephrine, the main chemical messenger of
the sympathetic nervous system, which controls many
functions of the body, such as heart rate and blood pressure.
The loss of norepinephrine might help explain some of the
non-movement features of Parkinson’s, such as fatigue,
irregular blood pressure, decreased movement of food
through the digestive tract, and sudden drop in blood pressure
when a person stands up from a sitting or lying position.
Many brain cells of people with Parkinson’s disease contain
Lewy bodies, unusual clumps of the protein alpha-synuclein.
Some cases of Parkinson’s disease appear to
be hereditary, and a few cases can be traced to specific
genetic mutations.While genetics is thought to play a
role in Parkinson’s, in most cases the disease does not
seem to run in families. Many researchers now believe
that Parkinson’s results from a combination of genetic
and environmental factors, such as exposure to toxins.
Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease
Parkinson’s has four main symptoms:
•Tremor in hands, arms, legs, jaw, or head
•Muscle stiffness, where muscle remains contracted for a
•Slowness of movement
•Impaired balance and coordination, sometimes leading
Other symptoms may include:
•Depression and other emotional changes
•Difficulty swallowing, chewing, and speaking
•Urinary problems or constipation
•Skin problems
Treatments for Parkinson’s disease
Although there is no cure for Parkinson’s
medicines, surgical treatment, and other
often relieve some symptoms.
Medicines for Parkinson’s disease
Medicines can help treat the symptoms of
by:
•Increasing the level of dopamine in the brain
•Having an effect on other brain chemicals, such
neurotransmitters, which transfer information
brain cells
•Helping control non-movement symptoms
Other therapies
Other therapies that may help manage Parkinson’s
include:
•Physical, occupational, and speech therapies, which
with gait and voice disorders, tremors and rigidity,
in mental functions
•A healthy diet to support overall wellness
•Exercises to strengthen muscles and improve
flexibility, and coordination
•Massage therapy to reduce tension
•Yoga and tai chi to increase stretching and
Support for people living with Parkinson’s disease
While the progression of Parkinson’s is usually slow,
eventually a person’s daily routines may be affected.
Activities such as working,
taking care of a home,
participating in social activities with friends may
become challenging.
Experiencing these changes can be difficult, but
support groups can help people cope.
These groups can provide information, advice, and
connections to resources for those living with
Parkinson’s disease, their families, and caregivers.
The organizations listed below can help people find
local support groups and other resources in their
communities.
Epilepsy is a common condition that affects the brain and
causes frequent seizures. Seizures are bursts of electrical
activity in the brain that temporarily affect how it works.
They can cause a wide range of symptoms. Epilepsy can
start at any age, but usually starts either in childhood or in
people over 60.
Epilepsy
Symptoms of epilepsy
Seizures can affect people in different ways, depending on
which part of the brain is involved.
Possible symptoms include:
•uncontrollable jerking and shaking, called a "fit"
•losing awareness and staring blankly into space
•becoming stiff
•strange sensations, such as a "rising" feeling in the
tummy, unusual smells or tastes, and a tingling feeling in
your arms or legs
•collapsing
Sometimes you might pass out and not remember what
happened.
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special needs.pptx

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  • 2. Understanding visual impairment There are many different types of vision loss, ranging from mild vision impairment to total blindness. These can be caused by various conditions and diseases, including as the result of an accident. What are the symptoms of visual impairment? In babies: •eyes move quickly from side to side (nystagmus), jerk or wander randomly •eyes don’t follow your face or an object, or they don’t seem to make eye contact •eyes don’t react to bright light being turned on in the room •turn or tilt their head or cover one eye when looking closely at things •tired after reading, drawing or playing handheld games •better vision during the day •crossed or turned eyes or a squint (lazy eye) •seem clumsy – for example, knocking things over or tripping often. In older children: •hold things up close to their face •frequent tiredness/eye rubbing •pupils seem white or cloudy rather than black •eyes don’t appear straight but turn towards the nose or drift outwards.
  • 3. Facts about visual impairment A person with vision impairment or low vision does have some vision, however their vision loss is severe enough to affect their ability to perform vocational, recreational and/or social tasks. Vision of this nature can’t usually be corrected to normal vision by regular glasses. •A person who is totally blind has no measurable or useable vision, and no light perception. •Legally blind is a term used by government to identify people who are eligible for special benefits and services. •Visual conditions in children may be present at birth, or occur at any time from disease or accident or be part of a medical condition or syndrome. Common types of visual impairment •Loss of Central Vision. The loss of central vision creates a blur or blindspot, but side (peripheral) vision remains intact. ... •Loss of Peripheral (Side) Vision. ... •Blurred Vision. ... •Generalized Haze. ... •Extreme Light Sensitivity. ... •Night Blindness
  • 4. What are the four 4 classifications of visual impairment? Mild –visual acuity worse than 6/12 to 6/18. Moderate –visual acuity worse than 6/18 to 6/60. Severe –visual acuity worse than 6/60 to 3/60. Blindness –visual acuity worse than 3/60. What is legally blind vision? Visual acuity less than 20/200 is considered legally blind, but to actually fit the definition, the person must not be able to attain 20/200 vision even with prescription eyewear Causes of vision impairment Vision may be impaired due to multiple reasons. These could be due to eye damage, failure of the brain to receive and read the visual cues sent by the eyes etc. Underlying diseases may also cause visual impairment. The commonest cause is diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, formation of cataracts and raised Mobility canes are a form of mobility aid that enable blind or visually impaired people to go about their daily business when out and about, especially in unfamiliar areas. White mobility canes are used by many people who have a visual impairment.
  • 5. A person who is not able to hear as well as someone with normal hearing – hearing thresholds of 20 dB or better in both ears – is said to have hearing loss. Hearing loss may be mild, moderate, severe, or profound. Hearing impairment Hearing loss vs. deafness It is important to distinguish between the different levels of hearing loss. Hearing loss: This is a reduced ability to hear sounds in the same way as other people. Deafness: This occurs when a person cannot understand speech through hearing, even when sound is amplified.
  • 6. Four levels of deafness There are four levels of deafness or hearing impairment. These are: •Mild deafness or mild hearing impairment: The person can only detect sounds between 25 and 29 decibels (dB). They may find it hard to understand the words other people are saying, especially if there is a lot of background noise. •Moderate deafness or moderate hearing impairment: The person can only detect sounds between 40 and 69 dB. Following a conversation using hearing alone is very difficult without using a hearing aid. •Severe deafness: The person only hears sounds above 70 to 89 dB. A severely deaf person must either lip- read or use sign language in order to communicate, even if they have a hearing aid. •Profound deafness: Anybody who cannot hear a sound below 90dB has profound deafness. Some people with profound deafness cannot hear anything at all, at any decibel level. Communication is carried out using sign language, lip-reading, or reading and writing.
  • 7. Speech Impediment A speech impediment happens when your child’s mouth, jaw, tongue and vocal tract can’t work recognizable words. Left untreated, a speech impediment can make it difficult for children to learn to Speech therapy can make a significant difference for children whose speech impediment isn't related to A speech impairment affects people who have problems speaking in a regular tone of voice or tempo. Speech impairments make it hard for people to communicate properly, and they can happen in both children and adults. These disorders can cause frustration and embarrassment to the person suffering from them. There are three general categories of speech impairment: •Fluency disorder. This type can be described as an unusual repetition of sounds or rhythm. •Voice disorder. A voice disorder means you have an atypical tone of voice. It could be an unusual pitch, quality, resonance, or volume. •Articulation disorder. If you have an articulation disorder, you might distort certain sounds. You could also fully omit sounds.
  • 8. There are three general categories of speech impairment: •Fluency disorder. This type can be described as an unusual repetition of sounds or rhythm. •Voice disorder. A voice disorder means you have an atypical tone of voice. It could be an unusual pitch, quality, pitch, quality, resonance, or volume. •Articulation disorder. If you have an articulation disorder, you might distort certain sounds.You could also fully omit could also fully omit sounds. Health IssuesThat Affect Speech Impairment Other than childhood speech impairments, there are a range of reasons you could get one in your adult years.They can happen due to a traumatic event, illness, or surgery. Dysarthria, aphasia, and voice disturbances can happen in adulthood, and are usually due to these medical events. Aphasia. Aphasia is the loss of ability to understand words, spoken or written.There are many types of aphasia. It can happen after a stroke or if a tumor reaches the part of the brain where language is processed. Medical issues that can cause aphasia: •Dementia •Head trauma •Stroke •Transient ischemic attack (TIA) •Brain tumor •Alzheimer’s disease
  • 9. Dysarthria. Dysarthria is usually caused by a nerve problem. The person suffering from it loses the ability to make certain sounds or might have poor pronunciation. It can also affect your ability to larynx, lips, and vocal chords. Medical issues that can cause dysarthria: •Facial trauma •Head trauma •Diseases that affect your nervous system •Stroke •Side effects of certain medication •Alcoholic intoxication •Dementia •Dentures that don’t fit properly •Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
  • 10. Understanding Speech Impairments Having a speech impairment can be a very frustrating and embarrassing experience for the person important to be patient and understanding when communicating. Try the following tips to improve communication and foster an accepting environment with impairment: •Speak slowly and use hand gestures •Keep a pen and paper handy in case it’s needed to communicate •Maintain a calm environment free of stimulating sounds •Use simple phrases when you speak •Use your normal tone of voice Consulting with a mental health care provider can help with feelings of anger and depression that speech impairments.
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  • 19. Down syndrome, trisomy 21, is the most common autosomal trisomy, and commonest identifiable cause of learning disability. Despite current prenatal screening practice birth prevalence continues to be around 1/1000 live births
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  • 37. Magnesium sulfate (used for tocolysis for preterm labour, and to increase the seizure threshold in mothers with pre eclampsia) may reduce the risk of CP according to some studies, but further research is needed before it is used specifically as a neuroprotective agent for preterm births. Antibiotics used to treat bacterial vaginosis may reduce the rate of preterm delivery. In women with premature rupture of membranes, antibiotics reduce the risk of chorioamnionitis. Corticosteroids reduce the risk of CP, as steroids inhibit cytokine production, thus preventing PVL.
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  • 42. Alzheimer's disease is a brain disorder that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills and, eventually, the ability to carry out the simplest tasks. In most people with the disease — those with the late-onset type symptoms first appear in their mid-60sAlzheimer’ Alzheimer's disease
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  • 47. Get regular medical care Make regular appointments with your primary care doctor or specialist (neurologist, neuropsychiatrist, geriatric psychiatrist). Consider going to a memory disorders clinic. Ask your doctor for a referral if desired Find local services and support Find local services by contacting Eldercare Locator. Do some legal, financial, and long-term care planning •Get information to help you plan. •Prepare or update your will, living will, power of attorney, and financial power of Learn about care you may need in the how to pay for it. •Explore getting help to pay for medicines, housing, transportation, and more. Get help as needed with day-to-day tasks •Use simple memory aids like a notepad or sticky notes to jot down reminders, a pillbox to keep medications organized, and a calendar to record appointments. •Ask family members or friends or find local services to help with routine tasks, such as cooking, paying bills, transportation, or shopping. •Consider using technology solutions for medication management, safety (e.g., emergency response, door alarms), and other care. Be safe at home •Get home-safety tips. •Ask your doctor to order a home-safety evaluation and recommend a home health care agency to conduct it. Medicare may cover the cost. •Consider wearing a medical ID bracelet or necklace in case you get los Stay safe on the road •Talk with your doctor if you become confused, get lost, or need lots of help with directions, or if others worry about your driving. •Get a driving evaluation. Ask your doctor for names of driving evaluators,
  • 48. Consider participating in a clinical trial •Ask your doctor about trials or studies. •Contact an Alzheimer's Disease Research Center for assessment and potential opportunities. •Search for a clinical trial or study near • The Alzheimers.gov Clinical Trials •Learn more about clinical tri Stay healthy •Be active! Getting exercise helps people with Alzheimer's feel better and helps keep their muscles, joints, and heart in good shape. •Eat a well-balanced diet that includes fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. •Continue to enjoy visits with family and friends, hobbies, and outings. If you live alone •Identify someone who can visit you regularly and be an emergency contact. •If you are at risk of falling, order an emergency response system. A special pendant or bracelet lets you summon help if you fall and can't reach the phone. •Consider working with an occupational therapist. This person can teach you ways to stay independent. Ask your doctor for more information. •Stick with familiar places, people, and routines. Simplify your life.
  • 49. DEMENTIA Dementia is the loss of cognitive functioning — thinking, remembering, and reasoning — to such an extent that it interferes with a person's daily life and activities.
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  • 52. Lewy Body Dementia (LBD) is another form of dementia that causes changes in thinking, behavior, and movement. LBD is caused by abnormal deposits of a protein called alpha-synuclein in the brain. These deposits, called Lewy bodies, can lead to problems with thinking, movement, behavior, and mood. For example, symptoms may include changes in alertness and attention, hallucinations, tremor, muscle stiffness, sleep problems, and memory loss. The two types of Lewy Body Dementia are: •Dementia with Lewy bodies, in which cognitive symptoms appear within a year of movement problems •Parkinson’s disease dementia, in which cognitive problems develop more than a year after the onset of movement problems
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  • 59. what is Parkinson’s syndrome Parkinson's disease is a brain disorder that causes unintended or uncontrollable movements, such as shaking, stiffness, and difficulty with balance and coordination. Symptoms usually begin gradually and worsen over time. As the disease progresses, people may have difficulty walking and talking. What causes Parkinson’s disease? The most prominent signs and symptoms of Parkinson’s disease occur when nerve cells in the basal the brain that controls movement, become impaired and/or die. Normally, these nerve cells, or neurons, produce an important brain chemical known as dopamine. die or become impaired, they produce less dopamine, which causes the movement problems disease. Scientists still do not know what causes the neurons to die.
  • 60. People with Parkinson’s disease also lose the nerve endings that produce norepinephrine, the main chemical messenger of the sympathetic nervous system, which controls many functions of the body, such as heart rate and blood pressure. The loss of norepinephrine might help explain some of the non-movement features of Parkinson’s, such as fatigue, irregular blood pressure, decreased movement of food through the digestive tract, and sudden drop in blood pressure when a person stands up from a sitting or lying position. Many brain cells of people with Parkinson’s disease contain Lewy bodies, unusual clumps of the protein alpha-synuclein. Some cases of Parkinson’s disease appear to be hereditary, and a few cases can be traced to specific genetic mutations.While genetics is thought to play a role in Parkinson’s, in most cases the disease does not seem to run in families. Many researchers now believe that Parkinson’s results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors, such as exposure to toxins.
  • 61. Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease Parkinson’s has four main symptoms: •Tremor in hands, arms, legs, jaw, or head •Muscle stiffness, where muscle remains contracted for a •Slowness of movement •Impaired balance and coordination, sometimes leading Other symptoms may include: •Depression and other emotional changes •Difficulty swallowing, chewing, and speaking •Urinary problems or constipation •Skin problems
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  • 63. Treatments for Parkinson’s disease Although there is no cure for Parkinson’s medicines, surgical treatment, and other often relieve some symptoms. Medicines for Parkinson’s disease Medicines can help treat the symptoms of by: •Increasing the level of dopamine in the brain •Having an effect on other brain chemicals, such neurotransmitters, which transfer information brain cells •Helping control non-movement symptoms
  • 64. Other therapies Other therapies that may help manage Parkinson’s include: •Physical, occupational, and speech therapies, which with gait and voice disorders, tremors and rigidity, in mental functions •A healthy diet to support overall wellness •Exercises to strengthen muscles and improve flexibility, and coordination •Massage therapy to reduce tension •Yoga and tai chi to increase stretching and Support for people living with Parkinson’s disease While the progression of Parkinson’s is usually slow, eventually a person’s daily routines may be affected. Activities such as working, taking care of a home, participating in social activities with friends may become challenging. Experiencing these changes can be difficult, but support groups can help people cope. These groups can provide information, advice, and connections to resources for those living with Parkinson’s disease, their families, and caregivers. The organizations listed below can help people find local support groups and other resources in their communities.
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  • 68. Epilepsy is a common condition that affects the brain and causes frequent seizures. Seizures are bursts of electrical activity in the brain that temporarily affect how it works. They can cause a wide range of symptoms. Epilepsy can start at any age, but usually starts either in childhood or in people over 60. Epilepsy
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  • 70. Symptoms of epilepsy Seizures can affect people in different ways, depending on which part of the brain is involved. Possible symptoms include: •uncontrollable jerking and shaking, called a "fit" •losing awareness and staring blankly into space •becoming stiff •strange sensations, such as a "rising" feeling in the tummy, unusual smells or tastes, and a tingling feeling in your arms or legs •collapsing Sometimes you might pass out and not remember what happened.