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Inductive reasoning powerpoint

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Inductive reasoning powerpoint

  1. 1. Inductive Reasoning by: Kathryn Ecoff
  2. 2. What is Inductive Reasoning? • Inductive Reasoning is arriving at a conclusion on the basis of principle facts that can guide you to the conclusion. • It also can be called an educated guess. • Inductive reasoning suggests the truth about a statement but does not directly prove the statement. • This type of reasoning is mainly based on observations.
  3. 3. Strong Induction • Strong Induction is when you decide to believe the conclusion is true based on the evidence. • The conclusion of strong inductions is usually likely to be true. • For a statement to be a strong induction, it has to be logical, and have some sort of evidence.
  4. 4. Examples of Strong Induction • All the tigers observed in a particular region have black stripes, therefore all the tigers native to this region have black stripes. • This is a strong induction because it has not been proven false yet, based on observations taken.
  5. 5. Weak Induction • A weak induction is when your particular view on something does not allow you to see that the conclusion is likely given the evidence. • Weak inductions tend to be false, or based on very limited examples or facts. • Weak inductions are usually based on a person’s experiences or observations, and is likely able to be proven false.
  6. 6. Examples of Weak Induction • I always hang pictures on nails, therefore all pictures hang from nails. • This is a weak induction because not every picture is hung from a nail, and not everybody hangs pictures from nails, so it can be proven false.
  7. 7. Real World Connections • Inductive reasoning can be used during everyday conversations. Examples: • Every cat I have seen has a tail, so all cats have tails. • This is a strong induction because it has not yet been proven false. Another example: • Everybody I know has been to McDonald’s, so everyone has been to McDonald’s. • This is a weak induction, because there are some people who have never been to McDonald’s.
  8. 8. Real World Connections • Inductive reasoning is mainly used when proving theories or statements. • All swans are white based on all available observations of swans. • This specific conclusion was overturned when black swans were discovered, so this theory was eventually proved false, even though at one point it was true. • Newton’s laws of motion are examples of this type of reasoning. • An object in motion continues with the same speed and direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.
  9. 9. Real World Connections • Inductive reasoning is also used during math. • The spinner has landed on the color blue the past three times, so blue is the color spun the most. • Inductive reasoning is based on observations in math.

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