Workshop #4March 30, 2012 SELF REGULATORY RESPONSIBILITIES IN INTERNATIONAL TOURISM Ashley Hatt and Justin Burke
Agenda1. Introduction2. Background3. Video clips4. Discussion questions5. Conclusion6. References**Scroll over to jump slides
First off – THANK YOU for attending our virtualworkshop!
Introduction Evidence mounts that unrestricted tourism growth may create unwanted social and environmental impacts at destinations; there is a growing call to develop environmental regulation which reduces these impacts, but allows the industry to continue. (Forsyth, 1997)
Reminder...Sustainable Tourism Tourism that meets the needs of present tourists and host regions, while protecting and enhancing opportunity for the future. Rather than being a type of product, it is an ethos that underpins all tourism activities. As such, it is integral to all aspects of tourism development and management rather than being an add-on component . (WTTC, 2012)
Introduction Self-regulation has been described as preferable to traditional command-and-control forms of regulation because it allows companies to use environmentally-responsible practices to increase competitive advantage. (Forsyth, 1997)
Why Self-Regulation?Ethical Consumerism: Market interest for goods seeking to avoid environmentally or socially-negative impacts Public concern and demand for sustainable tourism products and services provide commercial incentives for companies to respond to this by producing goods overtly associated with environmental protection. (Forsyth, 1997)
Why Self-Regulation?Tourism Sectors include:1. Tour operators2. Travel agents3. Hotels4. Passenger carriers (airlines and cruise liners)5. Tourism associations6. National tourist offices7. Consultancies offering advice to companies sending tourists overseas (Forsyth, 1997)
Why Self-Regulation? Practices of voluntary environmental responsibility reduces the potential harmful impacts of industry before the introduction of restrictive legislation Provides marketing tools to add value to products, or improve the corporate image with the public
Who?1. WTTRC (World Travel and Tourism Research Council)2. Green Globe Program Two world-wide environmental management and public awareness programmes for tourism companies, including advice on integrating Agenda 21 into business management . (WTTC, 2012)
Types Cost- cutting Value-adding Long-term investment Legislation (through government)Green Globe 21 – only international accreditation scheme, benchmarking, and certification system for sustainable tourism (Bramwell, 2004)
Table 1This shows a range of regulatory instrumentsavailable to industry and government,classified according to degree of directinvolvement and who is responsible. (Sustainable Tourism, 2012)
Benefits of Self-RegulationEconomic Greater reign of control over implemented regulations Self regulation is sustainable, sustainability attracts tourists Provides business with competitive advantage
Benefits of Self-RegulationSocio-Cultural Educates tourists and community about surrounding destination, reduces impact Helps maintain cultural heritage Supplies local communities with jobs
Benefits of Self-RegulationEnvironmental Strict regulation reduces environmental degradation Protects wildlife and surrounding habitat Allows tourists access with minimal impact Aids resource management
However...‘Free Riders’ Many companies are reluctant to adopt self- regulation in fear that their position would be undermined by other tourism competitors. Free riders are able to operate at lower costs than ethically self-regulated companies, gaining a competitive standing in marketplace. (Forsyth, 1997)
Challenges to Self-RegulationSelf-regulation is difficult to implement in the tourism industry because:1. No tangible, lasting product, but is based on image and presentation2. No ‘one’ industry, but rather a combination of many sectors3. Extreme price competition (focus on short- term profit over long-term sustainability
Video #1Tourist Arrivals Up in Antarcticahttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ih949hVs78
Video #2U.S. Proposes Limits on Tourism in Antarcticahttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AOVjLPkseio&feature=relmfu
Discussion Questions1. From the videos shown, what would YOU do if you could implement 3 self-regulatory policies for tourism in the Antarctic?
Discussion Questions2. Should larger companies be held to stricter self-regulatory policies regarding sustainable tourism development?
Conclusion "The Travel & Tourism industry urges global leaders ... to actively engage the private sector in translating the internationally agreed framework into transparent, supportive and progressive national and regional policies" Jean-Claude Baumgarten WTTC President & CEO
ReferencesBramwell, B, 2004. Tourism Collaboration And Partner: Politics, Practice and Sustainability (Aspects of Tourism). Edition. Multilingual Matters.Haase, D., Lamers, M., Amelung, B. (2009). Heading into uncharted territory? Exploring the institutional robustness of self-regulation in the Antarctic tourism sector. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 17 (4), pg. 411-430Forsyth, T, 1997. Environmental responsibility and business regulation: the case of sustainable tourism.. The Geographical Journal, [Online]. 163(3), 27-280. Available at: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/4733/1/Environmental_responsibility_and_business_regulatio n_(LSERO).pdf [Accessed 27 March 2012].Miller, G, 2005. Monitoring for a Sustainable Tourism Transition:. Edition. CABI.Sustainable Tourism. 2012. Regulating Tourism: Sustainability in the Free Market . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.fathom.com/course/21701788/session3.html. [Accessed 26 March 12].World Travel and Tourism Council. 2012. Research. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.wttc.org/research/. [Accessed 28 March 12].