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Tracking national ag research investments asti


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Tracking national ag research investments asti

  1. 1. Tracking National Agricultural Research Investments in Developing Countries: ASTI’s experiences Nienke Beintema Head ASTI initiative, IFPRI-Rome office Presentation at the GFAR/EIARD/GDPRD Stakeholder workshop on Tracking Investments for ARD, Berlin, 20 January 2012
  2. 2. Outline of presentation■ Introduction to ASTI and “ASTI+”■ ASTI outputs: Focus on Africa■ Dissemination activities■ Main challenges
  3. 3. General objectives■ Collects national-level investment and capacity data on agricultural R&D: • Focused on developing countries • Institutional survey rounds (primary data)■ Aim is to provide: • Trends over time at country and regional levels. • Comparisons across countries and regions■ Collaborative network with large number of national, regional and international partners; led by IFPRI
  4. 4. How data is collected■ Based on internationally accepted definitions and statistical procedures for compiling S&T statistics (OECD’s Frascati Manual)■ This facilitates comparisons of ASTI datasets with other relevant S&T datasets■ FAO definition of agriculture: crops, livestock, forestry, fisheries, natural resources, etc.■ Measure who is performing agricultural R&D
  5. 5. How data is collected (cont’d)■ Typically in close collaboration with the main agricultural research institutes or, in a few cases, with consultants■ National partners coordinate survey implementation, and coauthor/co-publish country notes■ Three different survey forms: one for government agencies/nonprofit institutions, one for higher education agencies, one for the private sector■ Survey forms are constantly being improved/revised
  6. 6. Data portfolio at country level■ Agricultural R&D investment and human resource capacity■ Institutional arrangements and changes affecting agricultural R&D■ Funding sources of agricultural R&D■ Degree qualifications of agricultural researchers■ Female participation in agricultural R&D■ Agricultural R&D focus in terms of crops, livestock, and other commodities, also themes
  7. 7. Country coverage■ Sub-Saharan Africa: 2008■ South Asia: 2009 (ongoing)■ Other Asia-Pacific: 2002-03 / GCARD2 activities■ Latin America: 2006 / GCARD2 activities■ Middle East/North Africa: 2002 / GCARD2 activities■ OECD and China: external data
  8. 8. Current ASTI outputs ■ Country notes ■ Regional and subregional reports ■ Data in-focus sheets ■ Datasets and country profiles ■ Country/regional/other seminars and presentations ■ Analytical assessments ■ Blog ■ Workshops / Accra conference ■ Press releases/media outreach ■ ASTI
  9. 9. Outline of presentation■ Introduction to ASTI■ Expanded ASTI (“ASTI+”)■ ASTI results: Focus on Africa■ Main challenges & gaps
  10. 10. ASTI transformation and expansion (“ASTI+”)
  11. 11. Transformation from adhoc activity to a sustainable data collection system■ More decentralized and regular data collection system by establishing a set of national and regional focal points (incl. development of an online work space / data management tool)■ Will lead to closer linkages with national stakeholders, but also with specialists at regional organizations, other CGIAR centers, and other partner institutions■ Will increase ownership of data by national partners, stimulate the use of the datasets for further advocacy and analysis, and secure continuity of data collection■ Focus on Sub-Saharan Africa / South Asia, but system can be used for other regions as well
  12. 12. Outline of presentation■ Introduction to ASTI■ Expanded ASTI (“ASTI+”)■ ASTI results: Focus on Africa■ Main challenges & gaps
  13. 13. Longterm investment and capacity trends in Sub-Saharan Africa Investments (and human capacity) in agricultural R&D increased bymore than 20% during 2000–08. Most of this growth was driven by just a handful of countries (mainlyfollowing boosts in salaries and rehabilitation of infrastructure). In many other countries (particularly in francophone West Africa),investments have declined since 2000.
  14. 14. Trends in agricultural R&D spending in the “Big Eight” since 2008 30Change 2008-2010 (%) 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30
  15. 15. Investment challenge: Underinvestment NEPAD target: Allocation of at least 1 % of GDP to R&D In 2008, Africa spent $0.61 for every $100 of AgGDP on agricultural R&D Despite an overall increase in recent years, Africa is widelyunderinvesting in agricultural R&D
  16. 16. Africa’s investment challenge: High donor-dependency■ Many countries are extremely dependent on donor funding and development bank loans Guinea (IRAG) Madagascar (FOFIFA) Eritrea (NARI) Mozambique (IIAM, IIP) Mali (IER) Uganda (NARO)Burkina Faso (INERA, IRSAT, CNSF) Rwanda (ISAR) Burundi (ISABU) Benin (INRAB) 0 20 40 60 80 100 Share of total funding Donors, development banks, and SROs Government Other
  17. 17. Africa’s investment challenge: Funding volatility Burkina Faso Niger 8 40 8 35Billion 2005 CFA francs Billion 2005 CFA francs Million 2005 PPP dollars Million 2005 PPP dollars 6 30 6 26 4 20 4 18 2 10 2 9 0 0 0 0 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008 1.5 South Africa 415 1.0 Gabon 3.9 Billion 2005 CFA francs Million 2005 PPP dollars Million 2005 PPP dollarsBillion 2005 rand 1.2 332 0.8 3.1 0.9 249 0.6 2.3 0.6 166 0.4 1.5 0.3 83 0.2 0.8 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007
  18. 18. Drivers of funding volatility in African agricultural R&D Government Sale of goods and servicesDonors and development banks TotalIndicates that in manycases shocks in one 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9funding source are to Volatility coefficientsome extent absorbedby reverse shocks inother funding sources
  19. 19. Outline of presentation■ Introduction to ASTI■ Expanded ASTI (“ASTI+”)■ ASTI results: Focus on Africa■ Main challenges & gaps
  20. 20. Overall challenges■ Continued financial support■ Coverage out of date for some regions■ Boundaries of ASTI datasets■ Which activities do and do not support R&D■ Institutional diversity■ Private sector coverage■ R&D beyond the national level
  21. 21. Data collection challenges■ Lack or slow response by agencies surveyed and increasing survey fatigue■ Infrastructural issues (eg, geographical dispersion)■ Difficulties interpreting and applying ASTI’s standards and definitions■ Difficulties in constructing financial overview due to multiplicity of funding sources■ Poor data quality / data management systems
  22. 22. Dissemination challenges■ How to make information available/known?■ How to communicate to a diverse set of stakeholders?■ How to enhance the relevance of ASTI information for national policymakers and R&D managers?■ How to reach policy-makers, directly or indirectly?■ Increase dissemination and use of ASTI outputs at the national levels
  23. 23. Please visit www.asti.cgiar.orgThank you