Human Resource Allocations in Sub-Saharan     African Agricultural Research:      Behind the Regional Trends              ...
Pool of public agricultural R&D staff       in absolute FTE numbers, 2008■ Large variation in researcher capacity by count...
Size of researcher capacity for 31              countries, 1971-2008■ Many African countries remain to have small capacity...
Changing R&D composition:                       Enhanced university involvement■ The role of the higher education sector i...
Growth in female scientist shares by          country, 2001 to 2008■ In 2008 average female participation was 22%, compare...
Shift in gender gap with career         advancement (10 countries), 2007/8■ But women remain highly underrepresented in ma...
Research allocation by degree and                                 country, 2008     Average                               ...
Researchers by major subsector, 2008         Mauritius                                                                    ...
Major crop items for specific                         countries, 2008 ■ Focus of crop research is highly diverse, even for...
Number of FTE researchers per                                          million agricultural labor force                   ...
Allocation of researchers and production     value across crops and livestock, 2008 ■ Overall, crops/livestock research al...
Number of FTE researchers per                                                                                             ...
Pressing human capacity challenges in             African agricultural R&D■ Many countries face rapidly aging pools of sci...
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Human Resource Allocations in African Agricultural Research: What Do The Data Tell Us?

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By Nienke Beintema and Michael Rahija.
Presented at the ASTI-FARA conference Agricultural R&D: Investing in Africa's Future: Analyzing Trends, Challenges, and Opportunities - Accra, Ghana on December 5-7, 2011. http://www.asti.cgiar.org/2011conf

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Human Resource Allocations in African Agricultural Research: What Do The Data Tell Us?

  1. 1. Human Resource Allocations in Sub-Saharan African Agricultural Research: Behind the Regional Trends Nienke Beintema and Michael RahijaPresentation at the ASTI/IFPRI-FARA Conference “Agricultural R&D: Investing in Africa’s Future. Analyzing Trends, Challenges, and Opportunities” Accra, Ghana, December 5-7, 2011
  2. 2. Pool of public agricultural R&D staff in absolute FTE numbers, 2008■ Large variation in researcher capacity by country as well as growth over time Researcher levels (in full-time equivalents) > 500 200 to 500 100 to 200 < 100 Nigeria (2,062) Mali (313) Mauritius (158) Botswana (97) Ethiopia (1,318) Uganda (299) Senegal (141) Niger (93) Sudan (1,020) Mozambique (263) Zimbabwe (139) Mauritania (74) Kenya (1,011) Burkina Faso (240) Malawi (127) Congo, Rep. (71) South Africa (796) Guinea (229) Côte d’Ivoire (123) Namibia (70) Tanzania (674) Madagascar (212) Eritrea (122) Sierra Leone (67) Ghana (537) Zambia (209) Benin (115) Togo (63) Burundi (107) Gabon (61) Rwanda (104) The Gambia (38) www.asti.cgiar.org
  3. 3. Size of researcher capacity for 31 countries, 1971-2008■ Many African countries remain to have small capacity pools, but total size has grown 31 Number of countries 21 10 0 1971 1981 1991 2008 Number of FTE researchers < 25 25-99 100-499 500-999 > 1000 www.asti.cgiar.org
  4. 4. Changing R&D composition: Enhanced university involvement■ The role of the higher education sector in agricultural research continues to increase 100 Share of FTE resaerchers (%) 15% 20% Higher education 24% 80 Nonprofit Government 60 40 82% 77% 73% 20 0 1991 2001 2008 preliminary data-not for citation www.asti.cgiar.org
  5. 5. Growth in female scientist shares by country, 2001 to 2008■ In 2008 average female participation was 22%, compared to 18% in 2000 www.asti.cgiar.org
  6. 6. Shift in gender gap with career advancement (10 countries), 2007/8■ But women remain highly underrepresented in management positions 100 Male Female 85% 80 72% 71% Female share (percentage) 65% 65% 60 40 34% 35% 35% 27% 20 17% 0 Students (10) Graduates (10) PS/ST (10) SPL (10) M (10) PS/TS indicates professional and technical support staff; SPL includes scientists, (assistant) professors, and (senior) lecturers not in management positions; and M indicates management and includes directors, deans, and department heads. When including all 15 countries, the female share in management positions is lower at 14 percent www.asti.cgiar.org
  7. 7. Research allocation by degree and country, 2008 Average ■ Researchers in francophone Senegal Côte dIvoire Burkina Faso Africa more highly qualified MaliRep. of Congo Madagascar Togo ■ During 1970s and 1980s, Niger Mauritania South Africa many countries received Uganda Benin considerable donor support Kenya Ghana Sierra Leone for staff training abroad but Gabon Sudan by the late 1990s, many Burundi Nigeria Tanzania donors had cut/eliminated Mauritius The Gambia funding for training. Malawi Namibia Botswana Zimbabwe Rwanda ■ Some smaller countries lack Zambia Ethiopia Mozambique critical mass of PhDs Eritrea Guinea 0 20 40 60 80 100 Shares of full–time equivalent researchers (%) BSc MSc PhD www.asti.cgiar.org
  8. 8. Researchers by major subsector, 2008 Mauritius ■ Crops remain the most Sierra Leone Ghana important subsector for Togo Rwanda Zambia many countries Gambia, The ■ Increased focus, however, Ethiopia Eritrea Tanzania Côte dIvoire Guinea Senegal beyond crop and livestock Zimbabwe Burundi Mali Benin Uganda Gabon South Africa Botswana Niger Sudan Kenya Nigeria Madagascar NamibiaCongo, Republic of Mozambique Mauritania Burkina Faso SSA average 0 20 40 60 80 100 Shares of full–time equivalent researchers (%) Crops Livestock Forestry Fisheries Natural resources Other www.asti.cgiar.org
  9. 9. Major crop items for specific countries, 2008 ■ Focus of crop research is highly diverse, even for the smallest of the smallCountry Major crop itemsNigeria Cassava (10%), maize (6%), oil palm (6%)Kenya Maize (18%), coffee (10%), vegetables (8%), potatoes (8%), wheat (8%), other fruit (7%), bananas (6%), sorghum (5%)Tanzania Maize (12%), rice (6%), cassava (6%)Ghana Cocoa (11%), cassava (11%), maize (10%), rice (9%), vegetables (7%), oil palm (5%), potatoes (5%), yam (5%)Sierra Leone Rice (30%), cassava (29%), sorghum (8%)Togo Maize (18%), cotton (14%), rice (14%), sorghum (12%), yam (9%), cassava (9%), cocoa (7%), coffee (6%)Gabon Bananas (36%), sugarcane (5%), oil palm (5%)Gambia, The Groundnuts (24%), millet (17%), rice (14%), maize (8%), fruits (8%), cassava (7%)SSA (30) Maize (9%), fruits (9%), rice (7%), vegetables (7%), wheat (7%), sorghum (6%), cassava (5%) www.asti.cgiar.org
  10. 10. Number of FTE researchers per million agricultural labor force 0 100 300 400 600 700 200 500 Niger Malawi Rwanda slightly Burundi Uganda Mozambique Madagascarwww.asti.cgiar.org Senegal Burkina Faso Côte dIvoire Tanzania Ethiopia Togo Zimbabwe Sierra Leone Guinea Gambia, The Zambia Benin Kenya Eritrea Ghana Mauritania Mali Sudan Nigeria Congo, Rep. of Namibia Relative researcher capacity: Botswana Gabon South Africa ■ Despite absolute growth, the number of researchers per Mauritius 3,103 Average million economically active agricultural population increased intensity ratios, 2008 compared with 1981
  11. 11. Allocation of researchers and production value across crops and livestock, 2008 ■ Overall, crops/livestock research allocation is fairly similar to their share in production value Ethiopia Researchers Prod value Ghana Researchers Prod value Kenya Researchers Prod value Nigeria Researchers Prod value South Africa Researchers Prod value Sudan Researchers Prod value Tanzania Researchers Prod value Uganda Researchers Prod value30-country sample Researchers Prod value 0 20 40 60 80 100 Shares (%) Crops Livestock www.asti.cgiar.org
  12. 12. Number of FTE researchers per million agricultural labor force 0 10 20 30 40 Nigeria Ghana Cassava Tanzania Mozambique Sierra Leone Number of FTE researchers per million agricultural labor force SSA average 0 100 200 300 400www.asti.cgiar.org Ethiopia Sudan Number of FTE researchers per Sorghum Eritrea million agricultural labor force Kenya 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Zambia Ethiopia Botswana 1,426 560 Kenya Maize Burkina Faso Tanzania South Africa SSA average Nigeria Tanzania Ghana Zambia SSA average Number of FTE researchers per million agricultural labor force Number of FTE researchers per million agricultural labor force 0 120 30 60 90 0 100 150 200 50 Ethiopia Mali Rice country, 2008 Wheat South Africa Guinea Ghana Sudan Ethiopia 1,066 Nigeria Kenya Madagascar SSA average Tanzania SSA average Researcher intensity by major crop and
  13. 13. Pressing human capacity challenges in African agricultural R&D■ Many countries face rapidly aging pools of scientists due to public sector recruitment restrictions■ Large influx of young BSc-qualified scientists after years of recruitment restrictions in some countries■ High staff turnover / brain drain: Many researchers have left agencies due to low salaries / conditions of service■ Limited in-country postgraduate training opportunities www.asti.cgiar.org

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