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  1. 1.    
  2. 2.         I N D E X   Title Page Foreword 3 1 About your Committee 1.1 What is the ECOSOC? 1.2 Who are the ECOSOC? 4 1.3 What is the function of the ECOSOC? 1.4 When is the ECOSOC called into session? 2 About the Issue 5 2.1 Economical Advantages of Implementation   6 2.2 Economical and Political Difficulties   7 2.3 Contemporary Agreements and Proposals   8 3 Session Approach 9 3.1 Particularities 4 Recommended Research Resources. 10 4.1 Documents and Websites 4.2 Guidance Questions 11 6 Member Delegations 12 7 References 14     2    
  3. 3.         Welcome delegate, to the fifteenth edition of the Union andPeace Model United Nations. The following document will provideyou with key information on the issue you, as the representative ofyour assigned nation will be addressing. The information it containsis focused towards guiding your investigation into the same keypoints as the other delegates, yielding an active debate, whichgenerates an effective solution to the issue of concern. Please doread comprehensively this document and keep in mind that it is onlythe first step to a complete preparation. On behalf of all the Unionand Peace 2009 staff, I wish you good luck on your preparation anddebate. Andres Gonzalez de Rosenzweig 3    
  4. 4.  1. About Your Committee1.1 What is the Economic and Social Council?The Economic and Social Council is an organ, part of the UnitedNations, which assists the General Assembly on the effort to addressissues concerning Economic progress and Social development,seeking to promote cooperation among nations. The ECOSOC is theprincipal coordinator of the 14 UN specialized agencies, holdingtherefore a large agenda of issues to address. Its overall goals are: “ promoting higher standards of living, full employment, and economic and social progress; identifying solutions to international economic, social and health problems; facilitating international cultural and educational cooperation; and encouraging universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedom. “11.2 Who are the ECOSOC?The ECOSOC is formed by 54 member states, which serve terms of 3years. All members are designated by the General Assembly andhold equal voting rights. These member states are represented bydelegations. Amongst these members, a variety of individuals frommember state delegations are selected to form the Bureau, who serveas a chair to preside the session.1.3 What is the function of the ECOSOC?The ECOSOC mandate is very broad when appointing powers andresponsibilities to the council. The ECOSOC has the function ofdeveloping studies, analyzing cases, appointing advisors, organizingsummits and many other capabilities, which take over 70% of theUnited Nations human and financial resources in its operations.21.4 When is the ECOSOC called into session?The ECOSOC holds regular meetings, throughout the year. Thesession schedule of the ECOSOC includes also a high number ofmeetings by agencies, funds, sub agencies, and other dependentorgans of the ECOSOC. The council as a whole traditionally meetsin July, having several scattered meetings throughout the year forforums and conferences.                                                                                                                1  United Nations: UN Economic and Social Council: About ECOSOC  2  Ibidem [United Nations: UN Economic and Social Council: About ECOSOC]   4    
  5. 5.  2 About the issue.The relevance of the use of renewable energy sources (RES) toreplace the traditional, highly contaminating methods to produceenergy has been agreed as a point of key importance on severaloccasions. It has been agreedupon as an importantcontributing factor to mitigatingthe effects of global climatechange and pollution.Organizations such as the WMOand the UNEP, have reported tothe ECOSOC on the potential ofthese energy sources to thereduction of CO2 emissions3. TheUN categorizes the introductionof clean renewable energysources as a part of the task of building a new ‘green economy’, andhas supported the efforts to achieve individual projects forsustainable development through the implementation of RES.                                                                                                                3  UNEP & WMO : Scoping Paper - IPCC Special Report - Renewable Energy Sources and Climate ChangeMitigation   5    
  6. 6.  2.1 Economical Advantages of Implementation The implementation of modern renewable energy sources has been described by Achim Steiner, German expert on the subject and Director of UNEP, as a highly important part of a larger set of actions to protect the environment and as a source of opportunities to be harnessed only through international cooperation. In recent years the production of energy from alternate energy sources has experienced a downfall in costs, and an improving cent per kilowatt efficiency. An analytical comparison by the United States National Renewable Energy Laboratory has yielded the graphs4 that can be observed in Figure 1. The graphs illustrate historical tendencies up to 2002 and the predicted tendencies up to 2020. The predictions by the NREL conservatively predict a slowdown in the improvement cost efficiency; nevertheless it is known that recent advances have led to a higher efficiency. "What we see from our modeling results is that mitigation of climate change, this is possible...The models show that this is technically feasible — and perhaps more important — also economically feasible." Dr. Brigitte Knopf, Researcher, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research5 Another source of economical appeal on the implementation of RES is the reduced or non-existent cost of raw materials. The main expenditures of RES are maintenance and other internal operational costs, which also exist in traditional energy plants. Overall, the main cost of using RES is the initial cost of facilities and the related technology.                                                                                                                4  Nutall, Nick: "Global Green New Deal" - Environmentally-Focused Investment5  Lacey, Stephen: The German Perspective, Part 1: Difficulties in Climate Negotiations   6    
  7. 7.   2.2 Economical and Political Difficulties Several elements act against the economical feasibility of the generalized adoption of RES. The initial investment is sometimes too overwhelming for a corporation or a nation to assume, even when the nation has a profile of pioneering in the field, as has been the case of Germany6. Nations with a heavy economic burden such as Niger have embraced the RES adoption scheme as a possibility for sustainable development, but have also resisted this transition because, like many other African nations, they depend largely on their coal exports. The implementation of RES would represent a decrease in the demand for coal and fossil fuels. In addition, African Nations adopting RES that depend on water related technologies have reported great failures as droughts diminish water levels in the water flow systems such as dams and rivers, and have thus defended their right to maintain traditional Energy Sources7. Figure 1:                                                                                                                6  Lacey, Stephen; The German Perspective, Part 1: Difficulties in Climate Negotiations  7  African Press Agency: Niger to Implement Renewable Energy Programs to Alleviate Poverty.     7    
  8. 8.   2.3 Contemporary Agreements and Proposals 2.3.1 Agenda 21 In 1992, the United Nations drafted a program, which has received international recognition by virtue of its holistic nature. The program bases itself on sustainable development and it covers basic aspects that range from poverty to technical data sharing. Its principles have served as a base for the 2002 Johannesburg summit, which ratified the principles and called for a full implementation of the protocol8. It has been suggested that the principles serve as a base for the agreement on the adoption of RES. 2.3.2 Eurosolar’s Proliferation Treaty The European authority Euro solar, in 2001 drafted the proposal for a treaty on the promotion of the proliferation of RES. It is based on the 1970 NPT and the Article 21 charter. The proposal has been discussed by the World Council for Renewable Energies9 (WCRE) and constitutes an important example of the recognition of the need for an international agreement. The WCRE has received US representatives in its calling for the creation of an International agency to promote and regulate RES. 2.3.3 Copenhagen 2009 The United Nations called for a conference to be held in Copenhagen in December of 2009, under the title of Copenhagen Climate Change Conference, the Conference is expected to be highly active and RES are expected to be a key point for discussion.                                                                                                                8  United Nations Division for Sustainable Development Agenda 21 - Table of Contents.9  EuroSolar International Proliferation Treaty for Renewable Energies   8    
  9. 9.      3 Session Approach Not unlike other major reforms that concern the environmentand the reaction to the effects of pollution, the practical agreementto promote and implement the replacement of traditional energysources represents a defining challenge to our generation. Thedebate on the desirability, or the morale behind the implementationof modern energy, is unnecessary, as the United Nations has alreadydefined an embracing position when dealing on this particular issue.Our discussion is oriented towards the establishment of a worldwideagreement on the handling the need for the adoption of renewableenergy sources in an economically feasible way, through theprinciples of sustainable development. Key points to focus on are themore practical issues, which might produce an international plan ofaction. 3.1 Particularities Special attention to the following concerns is suggested: • Problems with information sharing and international cooperation might arise. • The project might face opposition from non-renewable raw material providers, under the threat of losing demand for products such as coal or oil. • Nations are likely to report lack of resources for the conversion. • Cooperation problems might arise between the private and the public owned energy producers. • Developed nations have argued lack of fair exchanges from underdeveloped or developing nations. • A law to regulate transparency throughout all processes might be necessary. 9    
  10. 10.  4 Recommended Research ResourcesYour research, in order to be effective, must cover similar aspectsfrom your country as the research that is being done by your fellowdelegates on their assigned countries. To aid you in this task we’vecompiled a set of questions to guide your research and debate.Remember they only represent a suggestion and, as guidelines, arenot sufficient to function as the orientation of your wholeinvestigation. As well, we’ve compiled a set of websites that provideimportant research resources; these websites represent a potentialcatalyst for your investigation, and are meant to lead you into furtherresearch. 4.1 Documents and Websites UNEP: Video Resource: The Green Compromise • ?w=480&h=272&f=/ne wscentre/videos/webcasts/2009- 3-20_Towards_a__global_green_new_deal-0 UNEP: UNEP and Partners United to Combat Climate Change • United Nations Climate Change Conference Copenhagen 2009 • Introduction to Energy Sources and their Application in the U.S.A. • Center for a World in Balance - Agenda 2 • agenda21.php Iberdrola: World’s Largest Renewable Energy Operator • ash_complejos/FuerzasNaturaleza/default.htm World Council for Renewable Energy • 10    
  11. 11.   4.2 Guidance Questions. • What has your nation’s historical position been when debating RES? o Why? • How has your nation contributed to the issue, both locally and globally? • What is your nation’s experience with RES? • What is the viewpoint of your nation regarding the difficulties of reaching an agreement? o Do you have legislation on the matter? • What can your nation offer to the worldwide solution? • What is your nation’s actual benefit from getting involved? • Why could your contribution be appealing to the other delegations? • How would your nation’s proposal fit into an ECOSOC resolution? • What assistance does your country request from others? • What would your country be willing to give in exchange for aid (if necessary)? • What would your country be willing to receive in exchange for aid (if possible)?   11    
  12. 12.   Economic and Social Council MEMBER DELEGATIONS (1-10)1. Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela2. Canada  3. Republic of South Africa  4. Federative Republic of Brazil  5. Federal Republic of Germany6. French Republic  7. Japan8. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia9. Kingdom of Sweden10. Kingdom of Spain 12    
  13. 13.   Economic And Social Council MEMBER DELEGATIONS (11-20)11. Malaysia12. People’s Republic of China13. Republic of India14. Italian Republic15. Republic of Sudan16. Russian Federation17. United Arab Emirates18. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland19. United Mexican States20. United States of America 13    
  14. 14.  6. References  United Nations:UN Economic and Social Council: About ECOSOCBackground Information published by the United Nations.Visited: April 10th, 2009 Available at: & WMO Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: RenewableEnergy Sources and Climate Change MitigationInformation published by the UNEP & WMO on discussions on the topic.Visited: April 10th, 2009 Available at:, Nancy L.: U.S.-Indian Team Investigates Alternative Energy Source inIndiaBackground Information published by the United Nations.Visited: April 10th, 2009 Available at: Department of Energy: Multi-Year Research, Development, andDemonstration Plan:Programmed Activities to 2025Available at: Information published by the USDoE.Visited: April 10th, 2009Lacey, Stephen: The German Perspective, Part 1: Difficulties in ClimateNegotiationsArticle considering various aspects of RES implementation policies.Visited: April 11th, 2009 Available at: 14    
  15. 15.  African Press Agency: Niger to Implement Renewable Energy Programs toAlleviate Poverty.APA Article collected and published by the Net News Publisher service.Visited: April 12th, 2009 Available at: renewable-energy-programs-to-alleviate-poverty/United Nations Division for Sustainable Development Agenda 21 - Table ofContents.Directory and content of the Agenda 21 program charter.Visited: April 12th, 2009 Available at: Proliferation Treaty for Renewable EnergiesProposal by Eurosolar on RES Proliferation.Visited: April 12th, 2009 Available at:, Nick:"Global Green New Deal" - Environmentally-Focused InvestmentArticle Published by the UNEPVisited: September 5th, 2009 Dated: October 22, 2008 Available at: 15