Tree diversityday2012 santilli.ppt


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Presentation on Tree Diversity Day, 11 October 2012, at the 11th CBD Conference of Parties in Hyderabad, India

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Tree diversityday2012 santilli.ppt

  1. 1.      Agrobiodiversity,              Agroforestry          and  Law   Juliana  Santilli     Tree  Diversity  Day,   ICRAF   1
  2. 2. Agrobiodiversity, agroforestry amdLawAgroforestry and the UN environmental conventions:Convention on Biological DiversityConvention on Climate ChangeConvention to Combat Desertification +FAO International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and AgricultureUNESCO Conventions for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage and on Cultural and Natural HeritageSEED LAWS
  3. 3. Agrobiodiversity and Law   International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture: Multilateral system of Access and Benefit-Sharing The only “global commons” regime: - Facilitated access to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture under the multilateral system, but - Covers only Annex I crops, conserved ex situ and in the public domain;
  4. 4. Agroforestry and the ITPGRFA Plant Genetic Resources used in agroforestry systems ?? (ex: of tropical trees which produce fruits, nuts and oils) ?? Should they be included in the multilateral ABS system?? “Global commons” when used for the domestication of agroforestry trees??  
  5. 5. Agroforestry and the ITPGRFAInternational Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food andAgriculture: conservation and sustainable use of PGR.Promote and support farmers’ and local communities efforts tomanage and conserve on-farm their PGR;Promote the development and maintenance of diverse farmingsystems that enhance the sustainable use of agriculturalbiodiversity and other natural resources;Promote plant breeding efforts with the participation of farmers(participatory domestication of agroforestry trees, treeimprovement) 5
  6. 6. Farmers’ rights to:—  Protection of traditional  Save, use, exchange and sell knowledge farm-saved seeds (subject to national laws)—  Participate in benefit- sharing arising from the utilization of plant genetic Seed Laws and IPRs over resources plant varieties—  Participate in decision- making on matters related to—  conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources 6
  7. 7. Farmers’ rights: how to implement(“stewardship” approach)  —  Collective benefit-sharing, such as:—  Access of local/agrobiodiversity products (including agroforesty tree products) to the market under special conditions and incentives;—  Food security programs that consider the diversity of healthy foods that forests provide, and their cultural value and importance for local food systems;—  Payment for environmental services (including those provided by agroforestry systems, such as biodiversity conservation, improved soil fertility, carbon sequestration, watershed protection, domestication of underutilized species etc);—  Geographical Indications for agricultural systems as a whole (not for isolated products): promoting a “basket of territorial products and services” (Pequeur, 2006);
  8. 8. Intangible cultural heritage,agrobiodiversity and agroforestry—  UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage—  Brazil: First registry of a traditional agricultural system as “intangible cultural heritage”—  (ACIMRN (Indigenous Communities of Medio Rio Negro, Brazilian Amazon)—  Agrobiodiversity:—  Central element: manioc/—  cassava (73 varieties)—  243 plant species, including—  fruit trees and medicinal—  plants (Emperaire et al)
  9. 9. “Cultural landscapes”   UNESCO Convention on Cultural and Natural Heritage:“Cultural landscapes” (category created in 1992) “Cultural landscapes often reflect specific techniques ofsustainable land use, considering the characteristics andlimits of the natural environment they are established in, and aspecific spiritual relation to nature”
  10. 10. “Cultural landscapes” Examples: Implementation at the local 1) Archaeological level (ex: Brazil, Vale doLandscape of the First Coffee Itajai, in the State of SantaPlantations in southeast Cuba; Catarina) 2) Puszta PastoralLandscape of HortobagyNational Park, in Hungary; 3) Rice Terraces of thePhilippines Cordilleras; 4) Agricultural Landscapeof Southern Öland (Sweden)
  11. 11. Agrobiodiversity and Law  Seed Laws:Impose strict rules on seeds’ production, distribution and sales, that local systems cannot comply withReduce legal space for traditional/local farming systems (local seeds), that maintain agrobiodiversityIn many cases, they make informal seed exchange, as well as the sales of farm-saved seeds, illegal