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Tree diversityday2012 ganesan


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Participatory agroforestry programme helps with Tiger reserve conservation in India

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Tree diversityday2012 ganesan

  1. 1. Tree Diversity Day 11 October 2012, 1030 – 1830 hrs, Rio Pavilion CBD COP 11at the 11th Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD COP 11)Agroforestry as strategy in dryland restoration: experiences in India Rengaian Ganesan Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE) Bangalore
  2. 2. India with diverse About 69 percent (228 million ha) of India isforests and equally • dry land – arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humiddiverse vegetation • heavily populatedtypes • livelihood and food securityOut of 17000 species offlowering plants 2863species are trees
  3. 3. Three major programs on tree diversity at ATREE1. Mapping and monitoring tree diversity and estimating value of ecosystem services2. Understanding and enhancing the role of tree diversity in livelihoods , using participatory approaches.3. Restoring tree diversity, also using participatory approaches picture
  4. 4. MONITORING TREE DIVERSITY AND ESTIMATING VALUE OF ECOSYSTEM SERVICES Changing plant species composition and growth rates – Indicators of climate change Permanent Monitoring Plot
  5. 5. Multiple drivers leading to interspecific competitive interaction –that shapes the population structure of Phyllanthus emblica Hemi-Lantana parasite,Grazing Natural Fire death Drought (2002-2004) Invasives Effective management for conservation Hemi-parasite plants requires disentangling the effects of Grazing in Lantana-free area different drivers to identify those most responsible for species decline. Invasives, Hemi-parasite plants – Forest management practices
  6. 6. Native shade trees, Pollinators and Organic CoffeeAt farm scale Shade managementRustic shade Native shade trees Silver oakNatural farming dominated shadeas a way of life Sophisticated 0rganic farming with certification (niche for large farmers) Sun –Shade loving coffee Coffea arabica to Coffea canephora
  7. 7. Linkage between trees in forest fragments and Orange Plantations- serviced by wild pollinatorsForest fragments and Orange Plantations-Pollination service NTFP from forest patches – Persea odoratissima & Machilus edulis Urbashi.P & Soubadra,M.
  8. 8. Trees in water shed management Jagdish Krishnaswamy
  9. 9. Restoring tree diversity, also using participatory approachesBandipur Tiger reserve, Karnataka• restore arid degraded forest in wildlife corridor• Livelihood availability of forest resources,• water table for downstream agricultural lands
  10. 10. 2. Understanding and enhancing the role of tree diversity in livelihoods , usingparticipatory approaches.How do farmers value the trees? Sacred tree –Aglaia courtalensis• Timber• Fodder• Leaf manure• Bio-pesticide• Fuelwood• Money• Sacredness Wild Avocado fruits – Persea odoratissimaLopped Ficus trees in farmlands for fodder, minor timber (e.g.,poles)
  11. 11. Tree lopped for leaf manureFruits of Indian gooseberry- Phyllanths emblica Fuelwood from trees in farmland Fodder from trees in the farmland
  12. 12. Rock bee hives Ecological Services Refugia – Pollinators Wind breakers Soil binders Nutrient & water cyclingFruit bats Dryland farming = tree-based farming
  13. 13. Tree diversity in livelihoods - using participatory approaches Forest fringe villages around Protected Area- Can we help improve the condition (biodiversity) of these dry forests and also meet Bandipur the fuelwood requirements Tiger Reserve of the dependent community? Bannarghatta National park Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger reserve • The boundary in most places is sharp - Intensive Wetland Farming • Limited Fuel wood and Fodder sources Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve Twigs of Ipomoea fistulosa – as Fuelwood
  14. 14. How much was the biomass requirements of these villages and can we raise the fuelwood source outside the forest?17 months of census fuel collectors on regularpaths - 28 tons of forest fuel wood / month forthree villagesAmounts to about 300 tons per year and isremoved from a large area of forest roughlyabout 10 sq km.
  15. 15. HOW TO MEET FUELWOOD DEMANDS FROM OUTSIDE THE FORESTS?Diverse native and exotic fast growing multiple purpose tree species54 tree species – 18 fuelwood , 16 species fodder, 16 fruits, rest timberTop 5 species constituted 55% of the basal area of which 4 are fuelwood speciesWithin 4 years 247 m2 basal areaof trees– 42 % basal areacontributed by 4 fuelwoodspecies
  16. 16. Biomass generation in homestead -Fuelwood, FodderThree Year trees in backyard of 5 sq m,700 kgs of fuelwood in addition to timber US$100 Income generation Women Self-Help Group Nursery Gmelina arborea, Cassia fistula,
  17. 17. COMMON DRYLAND TREESOF KARNATAKABilingual field guide
  18. 18. AcknowledgementsFORD FoundationSir Dorabji Tata TrustDept. Biotechnology, Govt. of IndiaS.M.Sehgal Foundation