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The state of community forest (CFs) as successful social enterprises: Empirical evidence from Cameroon

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The state of community forest (CFs) as successful social enterprises: Empirical evidence from Cameroon

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The state of community forest (CFs) as successful social enterprises: Empirical evidence from Cameroon

  1. 1. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees The State of community forest (CFs) as successful social enterprises: Empirical evidence from Cameroon
  2. 2. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees TABLE OF CONTENT Results: Governance dimension of CFs as social enterprises Level of CF-level governance Results: Economic dimension of CFs as social enterprises Economic dimension of CFs Results: Social dimension of CFs as social enterprises How CFs meet social goals9 10 6 CFs as social enterprises per EMES How CF configuration meets EMES criteria Moving forest management to the people How the forest management devolution went CFs as social enterprises Legal obligations that make CFs social enterprises 2 3 1 How Can CFs be developed into successful social enterprises in Cameroon? Actions that can make CFs successful social enterprises Results: Extend of CFs as social enterprises How current CFs framework is from the EMES –ideal type11 12Methods Data collection sites, survey method and analysis 4 5 Research Questions Questions to be answered in this paper Conclusion Main conclusions from the paper 13 Results: Social dimension of CFs as social enterprises How CFs meet social goals 7 Areas for further research Petinent research questions to be answered14 Results: Social dimension of CFs as social enterprises How CFs meet social goals 8
  3. 3. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Your Subtitle Here Moving forest management to the people • Communities gained management right for <=5000ha over a 25 year renewable period. • Significance advances in laws with the management manual for community forests outlining how community forests should be managed. • After 20 years of CF management mixed results emerge with successes and failures.
  4. 4. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Your Subtitle Here CFs as social enterprises • Constitution as CIG, Economic interest group, association and cooperative are legal forms associated with social enterprises. • Proceeds from forest management is not to be shared but for community development • Profit distribution to members is forbidden • Governance set-up do not consider shareholders, decision making is based on one man one vote of stakeholders
  5. 5. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Your Subtitle Here CFs as social enterprises per EMES Key dimensio n Indicator Conformity with legal configuration of CFEs in Cameroon Economic and entrepren eurial dimension Continuous production Village communities which have a signed management agreement with the forestry administration, can harvest by themselves for profit, in an artisanal or semi-industrial way, the timber and Non-timber forest resources in the forests which have been allocated (MINFOF, 2009; pp 30) Some paid work The community or partner bears the cost of production activities Economic risk The community is free to engage in business activities with different partners while respecting the directives of the SMP. Social dimension Explicit social aim The aim of the CFE must go beyond the management of the community forest to the development of the village (MINFOF, 2009; pp 11) Limited profit distribution The proceeds from the sale of forest products from a community forest go entirely to the community concerned. Revenues drawn from the community forest will not be shared between members of the legal entity nor between members of the community. These revenues should be allocated only to finance the recurrent expenditure of the legal entity or provide social amenities (Water supply, village electrification, road construction etc) that are beneficial to the whole community. Initiative launching The decision to develop and invest in a CFE is a collective decision of all members of the community. Governan ce dimension Degree of autonomy The exploitation of resources within the CF, the profits from income generating activities (CFEs), distribution of profits is the sole responsibility of the forest community (MINFOF, 2009) Participatory nature According to article 28(1) of the Decree, all components of the community concerned must be consulted about the management of the community forest. To this end, the chosen legal entity must be as much as possible representative of all components of the community concerned (MINFOF, 2009; pp 12) Decision-making Decision making should include all components of the community, a minimum number of members who must be present during a meeting for a valid decision to be taken on behalf of the legal entity or management team should be defined. This will entail providing majority rules to be followed during decision making ((MINFOF, 2009; pp 50)
  6. 6. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Your Subtitle Here Research Questions •To what extend are CFs in Cameroon social enterprises? •Which dimensions of CFs management in Cameroon are closer to those of successful social enterprises?
  7. 7. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Your Subtitle HereMethods • A total of 38CFs were selected from 05 regions of Cameroon: Centre, South, East, Littoral and South West region • Key informant, focus group discussions and individual surveys were used to collect data from each CF • Building from the EMES ideal-type of social enterprise, a scale of 1-5 was used for the three dimensions(Economic, social and environmental) and the nine indicators.
  8. 8. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Your Subtitle Here Results: Economic dimension of CFs as social enterprises 85% 10% 3% 3% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Timber NTFPs Eco-tourism Tree planting Distribution of CFs by typology of enterprise 0 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 171819 20 212223 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 363738 Economic dimension Continuous production Some paid work Economic risk Indicator % of expected score Continuous production 45% Some paid work 46% Economic risk 48%
  9. 9. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Your Subtitle Here Results: Social dimension of CFs as social enterprises 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Social dimension Explicit social aim Limited profit distribution Initiative launching Indicator % of expected score Explicit social aim 60% Limited profit distribution 59% Initiative launching 61%
  10. 10. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Your Subtitle Here Results: Governance dimension of CFs as social enterprises 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 governance dimension Degree of autonomy Participatory nature Decision-making Indicator % of expected score Degree of autonomy 57% Participatory nature 48% Decision-making 54%
  11. 11. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Your Subtitle Here Results: Extend of CFs as social enterprises. Dimension Indicator Chi-square test significance level Comment Economic Dimension Continuous production 0.015 Significant gap from EMES-Ideal CriteriaSome paid work 0.017 Economic risk 0.023 Social dimension Explicit social aim 0.573 No significant gap from EMES-ideal Limited profit distribution 0.451 Initiative launching 0.544 Governance dimension Degree of autonomy 0.460 No significant gap from EMES-ideal type criteria Participatory nature 0.040 Significant gap from EMES-Ideal Criteria Decision-making 0.211 No significant gap from EMES-ideal type criteria
  12. 12. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Your Subtitle Here How Can CFs be developed into successful social enterprises in Cameroon? • Mentality shift from viewing CFs as timber enterprises to a production unit that can engage in other income generating activities such as NTFPs, agriculture, aquaculture and tourism • Entrepreneurial capacity of rural communities are low, significant capacity building is required. • Policy advocate for CFs to be officially recognised as social enterprises so they can benefit from their status as social enterprises. • Capacitate communities on good community level governance practices.
  13. 13. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Your Subtitle HereConclusion • CFs in Cameroon in their current form do not meet the criteria of successful social enterprises. • Economic/entrepreneurial dimension of CFs is significantly far from the ideal successful EMES-types social enterprise • Governance dimension is equally not close to the ideal EMES-ideal type criteria for all indicators. • Efforts can be made for CFs to improve their social dimension
  14. 14. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Your Subtitle HereAreas for further research •How can efficient business models be developed for CFs to be successful social enterprises? •What is the required governance framework for CFs to be effective social enterprises? •What is the required community capacity for developing social enterprises?
  15. 15. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees World Agroforestry (ICRAF), United Nations Avenue, Gigiri, P.O Box 30677-00100, Nairobi, Kenya Phone: +254 20 722 4000 Fax: +254 20 722 4001 Email: icraf@cgiar.org Website: www.worldagroforestry.org Thank you! (p.mandiefe@cigar.org) 00237679674489

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