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The karnataka biofuels project—navin sharma icraf cbd cop12

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Dr. Navin Sharma is Biofuel Programme Manager with the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) based in India. He holds a Ph D in Applied Biology from the University of Cambridge and has carried out his Postdoctoral work at the University of York. Navin has over 23 years of experience in industrial R&D working with two major FMCG companies: Unilever and ITC. He is currently leading a biofuels initiative being implemented in South Asia, Latin America and Africa. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/cop12

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The karnataka biofuels project—navin sharma icraf cbd cop12

  1. 1. Tree-based bioenergy The Potential for sustainable and Ecologically friendly energy Karnataka (India) Biofuels Navin Sharma World Agroforestry Centre New Delhi Side Event: 9 October 2014
  2. 2. Current Status of Biofuels • Excluding the land-use change, the first generation biofuels were projected to have a GHG saving between 10 and 90%. • Biofuels have been proposed to minimise the GHG reductions and a potential way to achieve 2 °C target (Mitigation) • Development of Biofuel sector in various countries is influenced by the mandates and subsidies provided • Considerable debate around biofuels on food vs. fuel and its impacts on food security – source of current biofuel are edible crops ( first generation biofuel crops) • Can have positive effects on food security - provide the new sources of income / employment, and also provide alternative sources of energy for rural communities • Many developing countries (e.g. India) have now developed policies that specifically targets Biofuels from non-food / multiple use crops and use of marginal land.
  3. 3. Where does this leave us? o Need for rethinking on Biofuels that addresses current concerns: a systems based approach rather than crop based!! o Position Biofuels for food security and livelihood improvements beyond solution for transport mix o Refresh national policies: based on solid science o Explore alternate models which avoids LUC and have positive carbon footprints / low carbon payback years o Develop active linkages with global initiatives especially from the UN o Learn from successful examples from across the globe and adopt Future: Link Biofuels to Food- Nutrition Security & Environment
  4. 4. Why World Agroforestry Centre? • Being a global centre for excellence in Agroforestry, ICRAF is uniquely placed to address the concerns of LUC and Food Security • Emerging science suggests ‘mixed cropping’ systems better than monoculture in addressing GHG reduction and carbon pay back time. • Trees better suited to address adaptation and mitigation of climate change. Improve biodiversity, reduce land degradation
  5. 5. Development of Alternate Biofuel Crops Selection of Case Studies Integrated Food Energy System (Anne Bodanski, Olivier Dubois), GBEP – sustainability indicators (Maria Michela Morese) Bottom-up approach, starting with the implementation of some projects that could help sustainable expansion of biofuels to new areas, policy advocacy & identifying 5 underlying cause of success. Environment & Climate Change Division (Elwyn Grainger Jones), National Programs Biofuel programme, Bioenergy, Oilseeds Biofuels for Livelihoods in the State of Karnataka Biofuels for Clean Energy in Mozambique: CleanStarMozambique Sustainable Biofuels involving small holder farmers in Brazil : EMBRAPA
  6. 6. Biofuels for Livelihoods Karnataka Biofuels Non toxic Jatropha Multi native species Despite a policy in place – the sector is fragmented, no forward marketing linkages Remains a ‘push – model’. States like Karnataka and Rajasthan lead with a separate body to over see the sector. Biofuels come under state oil companies. R&D gaps – Short rotation, high yield, high survival, assured market
  7. 7. Use of multiple feed stocks Name of the species Flowering Fruiting Yield / Tree and Oil % Pongamia pinnata May-June January to March 30-150 Kg (27- 42%) Jatropha curcus March – September April- May October- November 0.5 – 2Kg (30-35%) Madhuca indica March - April July- August 30-200 Kg (28-38%) Neem (Azadirachta indica) March - April June July 20-35 Kg (30 -39%) Simarouba glauca February April-May 15-30 Kg (20-25%) Amoora rohituka September- January November- April 30 Kg (40-46%) Calophyllum inophyllum March - May October- November 25-50 Kg (45-70%) Combination of above to get year round supply of seeds / Biodiversity
  8. 8. Community organization and capacity building, including feedback. 565 Malligevalu 564 Kallahalli 573 Bilagunda 574 Sirajbore Kaval 575 Dundanayakana halli 576 Ballekere 584 Domahalli 585 Parasanahalli 590 Javanehalli 591 Doranahosalli 284 Kinnarahalli 275 Kabbinahalli 276 Amanidoddakere 285 Machagowdanahalli 639 Kallenahalli 640 Chikkamallenahalli 668 Hanchihalli 669 Halenahalli 670 Danayakanahalli 673 Buntarahalli Study villages
  9. 9. Community organization and capacity building, including feedback.
  10. 10. Mr. Puttaraju, Secretary, Biofuel Association Planting of Biofuel grafts Mr. Puttaraju with mini oil expeller • Single village planted – 24, 000 biofuel seedlings • Complete biofuel village – each family have planted biofuel seedlings • Established value addition process with oil expeller
  11. 11. Research & Development Early Flowering, Nursery Technologies, Oil expelling Machines and Agroforestry Systems What is the insentive of farmers to grow biofuel crops in their limited land?
  12. 12. 3.0000 2.5000 2.0000 1.5000 1.0000 0.5000 0.0000 Net Energy Balance from various biofuels Simarouba biodiesel Jatropha biodiesel Amoora biodiesel Calophyllum biodiesel Soybean biodiesel Corn ethanol 0.0007 0.004 0.0008 0.0004 0.52 0.25 0.44 0.56 0.50 0.40 0.34 0.713 0.56 0.44 0.50 0.60 0.14 0.04 2.26 1.78 1.98 2.50 1.16 1.04 Input Cultivation(MJ) Input Processing(MJ) NEB(MJ) NER Agroforestry Net Energy Balance(NEB)=Energy Output-Energy Input; Net Energy Ratio(NER)=Energy output/Energy Input Both are calculated after excluding co-product energy credits and no allocation has been used NEB Agroforestry Based Biofuels Two-Fold Higher Than Traditional Biofuels
  13. 13. 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 GHG Savings Net GHG savings (as gram CO2 equivalents) compared to fossil diesel, per MJ of Energy produced from Various Biofuel -10 Simarouba biodiesel Jatropha biodiesel Aphanamixis biodiesel Calophyllum biodiesel Soybean biodiesel Corn Ethanol GWP 100 (IPCC 2007) GWP 20 (IPCC 2007) GWP (Hill et. al., PNAS (2006) Agroforestry Without factoring LUC
  14. 14. Biofuel Species & Gender Neem seed collection as a livelihood activity in Sarwad village of Bijapur Taluk, Karanataka, India By Prabhavati (A successful Story) We a group of women were involved in the process of Neem seed collection. Each one of us was collecting 4-5 tons of Neem seeds every season. Initially we were getting price only Rs.2-3/ Kg. After the bio-fuel programme implementation in the state we got all the information about the marketing and prices. There is a Bio-fuel Lead NGO who gave us information and guided us. Now we sell seeds to various people & oil mills and we bargain collectively for better rates. In our villages now we have 50 Women SHG’s. Nearly 150 women are involved in the Neem seed collection Business. Each member collects 4-5 tons of Neem seeds and gets average Rs.30000/ per year, which is an additional income to the family apart from agricultural income. It has helped us to improve the standard of living and quality of life in our village.
  15. 15. Using bio fuel to run an irrigation pump for five acres • Tamil Nadu faces a big problem in cultivation due to frequent load shedding, • a farmer, Mr. Mr. C. Rajasekaran, from Vettaikaran Irruppu of Kilvelur taluk in Nagappattinam district is using oil from Punnai (Tamil name) tree seeds (Calophyllum inophyllum) to operate his five hp motor pump for irrigating his five acres. • His garden, which was once considered to be unfit for any cultivation, since the soil became barren after the tsunami struck, is now home to nearly 35 different tree varieties. Mango, Guavas, Lime, Teak, Cashew, amla, tamarind, and jack are all flourishing well today in what was once considered a wasteland.
  16. 16. Mr. Ramesh with his tractor running on Pongamia oil Mr. Ramesh is using pongamia oil as fuel for his tractor from past 8 years No modification in the engine 20 % blend Increased mileage (5-7 %), saves up to Rs. 25,000/ per annum No defects and repair works of engine since from the use of oil
  17. 17. Challenges & Way Forward Performance • Evaluate impacts on livelihoods, energy contribution and provision of ecosystem services at local, district and state levels • Assess relative performance of species selected and mixtures of species • Assess productivity of the agroforestry system with comparison to non-biofuel systems Potential - Focus on scaling up the existing models within the State & India - Explore landscape level benefits in terms of restoration of ecosystem and economic services - Identify policy levers to facilitate the system - Identify the elements of the biofuel value chain and ‘sweet spots’ for improvement Promise - Explore possibilities for PPP - Explore opportunities to adapt model to different regions and ecosystems with similarly adapted suites of species - Develop ‘bankable’ investment models that capture the essence of the model – flexibility, diversity, resilience and fulfillment of local and distant needs – without over simplification

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