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Session 6.5 chemicall attributes of silvopastoral systems brazilian savanna

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Session 6.5 chemicall attributes of silvopastoral systems brazilian savanna

  1. 1. Chemical attributes of a silvopastoral system with legume trees and signal grass in the Brazilian savanna Oral presentation World Congress on Agroforestry – Delhi - India 2014 Rodrigo Martins Alves de Mendonça Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - BRAZIL
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION
  3. 3. South America
  4. 4. Brazil
  5. 5. • • • BRAZILIAN SAVANNAH “CERRADO” 204 million ha ~67% of the land area of India 55% of natural vegetation substituted by agriculture and pastures (Sano et al., 2008)
  6. 6. The “Cerrado” Total production of Brazil • 40% of cattle and soybean; • 20% of rice, corn and coffee • 10% of beans, sugarcane and cassava (Martha Junior & Vilela 2002) Source: Woods Hole R.C. (2013)
  7. 7. MATERIALS AND METHODS
  8. 8. Climatology 1,471 mm 15.1oC 27.9 oC
  9. 9. 35.3 ha 26.5 ha
  10. 10. 19/2/2014 10
  11. 11. SILVOPASTURE Pterodon emarginatus Urochloa brizantha 19/2/2014 11
  12. 12. SILVOPASTURE 16/9/2013 12
  13. 13. CONTROL AREA 19/2/2014 13
  14. 14. Results of soil chemical analysis Table 2: Average values of chemical attributes on a silvopasture system (SP) and open pasture control area (CT), up to 140 cm deep Depth Ca Mg K Al H+Al BS cm cmolc (dm3)-1 % SP CT SP CT SP CT Systems SP CT Systems SP CT SP CT -10 0.26 aB 0.55 aA 0.12 aB 0.30 aA 0.07 0.09 0.08 a 0.86 0.55 0.72 a 5.84 3.48 9.70 21.37 -20 0.12 bB 0.25 bA 0.10 a 0.13 ab 0.07 0.06 0.07 a 0.84 0.60 0.73 a 5.60 3.85 6.12 10.33 -40 0.20 abA 0.20 bA 0.04 ab 0.10 abc 0.04 0.04 0.04 b 0.74 0.48 0.62 a 5.40 3.38 6.68 9.27 -100 0.16 abA 0.18 bA 0.00 b 0.00 c 0.02 0.02 0.02 c 0.46 0.28 0.38 b 4.58 2.60 4.46 7.52 -140 0.12 bA 0.15 bA 0.00 b 0.03 bc 0.01 0.01 0.01 d 0.38 0.05 0.23 b 4.22 2.08 3.44 8.60 Averages followed by different lowercase letters in the lines are different among depths (p<0.05 Tukey Test) Averages followed by different capital letters in the columns, are different among treatments (p<0.05 Tukey Test) Systems 14.89 7.99 7.83 5.82 5.73 a b b b b
  15. 15. Table 2: Average values of chemical attributes on a sil Depth Ca Mg cm SP CT SP CT -10 0.26 aB 0.55 aA 0.12 aB 0.30 a Less than half -20 0.12 bB 0.25 bA 0.10 a 0.13 a -40 0.20 abA 0.20 bA 0.04 ab 0.10 ab -100 0.16 abA 0.18 bA 0.00 b 0.00 c -140 0.12 bA 0.15 bA 0.00 b 0.03 b
  16. 16. erage values of chemical attributes onofachemical attributes on(SP) Table 2: Average values silvopasture system a silv Ca Depth Mg Ca Mg K 3 -1 cmolc (dm ) cm SP CT SP CT SP CT CT Syste SP CT SP 0.26 aB 0.55-10 0.12 aBaB 0.30 aA 0.07 One third a aA 0.26 0.09 0.08 0.55 aA 0.12 aB 0.30 0.25 bA 0.10 a 0.12 bB 0.25-20 0.10 a bB 0.13 ab 0.07 0.06 0.13 a bA 0.12 0.07 0.20 abA 0.20-40 0.04 ab 0.10 abc 0.04 ab 0.10 ab bA 0.20 abA 0.20 bA 0.04 0.04 0.04 -100 0.16 0.18 0.00 b 0.16 abA 0.18 bA 0.00 babA0.00 cbA 0.02 0.02 0.00 c 0.02 -140 0.12 0.15 0.00 b 0.12 bA 0.15 bA 0.00 b bA 0.03 bcbA 0.01 0.01 0.03 b 0.01
  17. 17. • K, Al, B, Zn and Base Saturation did not differ among systems but decreased with depth;
  18. 18. Table 3: Average values of chemical attributes on a silvopasture system (SP) and open pa Depth Cu Fe B mg (dm3)-1 cm SP CT Systems SP CT Systems SP CT Syst -10 1.10 0.67 0.91 a 130.80 72.00 3.44 a 0.11 0.07 3.44 -20 1.04 0.55 0.82 a 77.60 44.00 2.54 b 0.11 0.07 2.54 -40 0.86 0.40 0.66 bc 56.20 28.50 2.20 c 0.09 0.05 2.20 -100 0.68 0.30 0.51 c 29.20 13.50 1.64 d 0.05 0.06 1.64 -140 0.46 0.28 0.38 c 17.40 8.75 1.23 e 0.05 0.06 1.23 All depths 0.83 A 0.44 B 62.24 A 33.35 B Averages followed by different lowercase letters in the lines are different among depths (p<0.05 Tukey Test) Averages followed by different capital letters in the columns, are different among treatments (p<0.05 Tukey Test)
  19. 19. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Depth cm P Water pH S OM dag kg-1 SP -10 -20 -40 -100 -140 All depths OC mg (dm 3)-1 CT SP CT Systems SP CT 4.88 4.90 4.84 4.96 5.02 4.92 B 5.08 5.02 5.15 5.20 5.28 5.15 0.76 0.44 0.38 0.32 0.30 0.85 0.53 0.33 0.25 0.28 0.80 a 0.48 b 0.36 bc 0.29 c 0.29 c 5.00 3.80 4.00 4.20 3.20 3.75 4.25 2.75 2.75 2.50 A Systems 4.44 4.00 3.44 3.56 2.89 a ab ab ab b SP CT 2.07 1.60 1.42 1.08 0.83 1.40 1.90 1.32 1.10 0.80 0.56 1.14 B A Systems Averages followed by different lowercase letters in the lines are different among depths (p<0.05 Tukey Test) Averages followed by different capital letters in the columns, are different among treatments (p<0.05 Tukey Test) 2.00 1.48 1.28 0.95 0.71 a b c d e SP CT 3.58 2.76 2.44 1.86 1.44 2.42 3.27 2.28 1.90 1.38 0.97 1.96 B A Systems 3.44 2.54 2.20 1.64 1.23 a b c d e
  20. 20. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OC Depth cm P Water pH mg (dm 3)-1 SP SP -10 -20 -40 -100 -140 All depths dag kg-1 OC S CT SP CT Systems SP CT 4.88 4.90 4.84 4.96 5.02 4.92 B 5.08 5.02 5.15 5.20 5.28 5.15 0.76 0.44 0.38 0.32 0.30 0.85 0.53 0.33 0.25 0.28 0.80 a 0.48 b 0.36 bc 0.29 c 0.29 c 5.00 3.80 4.00 4.20 3.20 3.75 4.25 2.75 2.75 2.50 A CT Systems SP 2.07 4.44 4.00 3.44 3.56 2.89 OM dag kg-1 Systems CT Systems 1.90 2.00 a 2.07 1.90 2.00 a 1.601.60 1.32 1.48 ab 1.32 1.48 b 1.421.42 1.10 1.28 ab 1.10 1.28 c ab 0.80 0.95 d 1.081.08 0.80 0.95 b 0.83 0.56 0.71 e 0.831.40 A 0.56 B 0.71 1.14 1.40 A 1.14 B 23% Averages followed by different lowercase letters in the lines are different among depths (p<0.05 Tukey Test) Averages followed by different capital letters in the columns, are different among treatments (p<0.05 Tukey Test) SP a 3.58 b 2.76 c 2.44 1.86 d 1.44 e 2.42 CT A 3.27 2.28 1.90 1.38 0.97 1.96 B Systems 3.44 2.54 2.20 1.64 1.23 a b c d e
  21. 21. 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 Organic Carbon dag kg-1 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.20 0 -20 -40 -60 Depth cm -80 -100 -120 -140 CT SP
  22. 22. CONCLUSIONS • The Cerrado tree, Pterodon emarginatus, in SPS, extracted more Ca and Mg from 0-20 cm layers than pasture alone. • Fertilization of SPS might increase the pasture production up to the light limit.
  23. 23. ...CONCLUSIONS • SPS had higher levels of organic carbon and organic matter; • Organic carbon increased soil equilibrium fertility and captured and sequestered carbon from atmosphere.
  24. 24. THANK YOU! 19/2/2014 28
  25. 25. ACKNOWLEGMENTS • Amilton Naves, the owner of the farm where the experiment took place; • Colegiado do Programa de Pós-graduação em Zootecnia da Escola de Veterinaria da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, which financed the participation in the congress; • Prof. PK Nair, Prof. Vimala Nair and Gregory Toth who exchanged knowledge at University of Florida; • Laboratorio de Analise de Solos e Calcarios da Universidade Federal de Uberlandia • CAPES, Exagro, Cnpq

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