ENVIRONMENTAL AND BIOLOGICAL
INTERACTIONS ON PRODUCTIVITY
OF A SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEM WITH
PINUS CONTORTA DOUG. EX. LOUD.
IN...
CHILE, A COUNTRY OF CONTRASTS

N

Concepción

S
GENERAL INFORMATION OF AYSEN REGION, IN THE
PATAGONIA OF CHILE: RESEARCH AREA
It is located
between 43°38´
and 49°16´ of
S...
GENERAL OBJETIVE

• “To study the effect of trees of Pinus
contorta plantation, under silvopastoral
management, in the pro...
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Name of
Treatments
T1.
Traditional
silvopastoral
system, with natural
pasture, improved
by fertiliza...
May, 2004
T1.Traditional
Silvopastoral:
400 trees/ha,
pruned to 3,2 m.
Stat. Design: 3
plots of 1.000 m2

T2. Strip
Silvop...
RESULTS AND
DISCUSSION
RESULTS
 FOREST PARAMETERS
 PASTURE PRODUCTION
 LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION
 MICROCLIMATE
 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARAMETERS F...
Results: FOREST PARAMETERS
Table 2. Results from 2004 to 2008 of total height (m), diameter at breast height (DBH), canopy...
Results: Pasture Production
Table 3. Pasture Production, 2004-2005 to 2007-2008 season (kg DM ha-1).
Pasture production pe...
Livestock Production from 2004 to 2008
Table 4. Animal productivity per effective hectare of meadow by treatment, 2004-200...
CLIMATE PARAMETERS
• WIND

Figure 1.

Average wind speed,

January 2007 to June

2008, per treatment.
CLIMATE PARAMETERS
WIND: Average Maximum Wind Speed km/hr:
 WITH PEAKS MORE
THAN 80 KM/HR
CLIMATE PARAMETERS
TEMPERATURE – RELATIVE HUMIDITY-PRECIPITATION
Average Temperature

T ºC

Relative Humidity per treatment (HR%)

86,0

14,0...
ANALYSIS: RELASHIONSHIP BETWEEN PRODUCTIVITY
PARAMETERS OF THE SYSTEM AND CLIMATE.
 ¿WHAT IS THE KEY
FACTOR TO MANAGE FOR...
ANALYSIS: RELASHIONSHIP BETWEEN
PRODUCTIVITY PARAMETERS AND CLIMATE
Livestock Production -Wind
Regression Wind - Animal P...
ANALYSIS: RELASHIONSHIP OF MORE THAN ONE VARIABLE
BETWEEN PRODUCTIVITY PARAMETERS*CLIMATE*DM

Animal production model, usi...
CONCLUSIONS
•

It can be concluded that the trees ordered in silvopastoral treatments
modified some climatic parameters of...
THANKS
•

Dr. Alvaro Sotomayor1
asotomay@infor.cl

www.infor.cl; www.agroforesteria.cl
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Session 5.5 Evaluating nitrogen transfer from Caragana shelterbelt and its effects on yield and nutrition of forage crops in Saskatchewan, Canada

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Session 5.5 Evaluating nitrogen transfer from Caragana shelterbelt and its effects on yield and nutrition of forage crops in Saskatchewan, Canada

  1. 1. ENVIRONMENTAL AND BIOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS ON PRODUCTIVITY OF A SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEM WITH PINUS CONTORTA DOUG. EX. LOUD. IN THE AYSEN REGION OF CHILE. Dr. Alvaro Sotomayor1, 1 Forest Engineer, M.Sc., Dr., INFOR Bio Bio Region, Chile, e.mail: asotomay@infor.cl www.infor.cl; www.agroforesteria.cl
  2. 2. CHILE, A COUNTRY OF CONTRASTS N Concepción S
  3. 3. GENERAL INFORMATION OF AYSEN REGION, IN THE PATAGONIA OF CHILE: RESEARCH AREA It is located between 43°38´ and 49°16´ of South latitude and from 71°06´ of west longitude to the Pacific Ocean • Pp (mm): 900 -1.300 mm/year •T° medium min: July de -0.7 ºC (peaks about -17 ºC), • T° annual average: 8.7 ºC. ( 306 days grades, base 10°C) •T° medium max: in January 18.7 ºC. • Winds: average 40 km/hr in springsummer (peaks of 80-100 km/hr Coyhaique
  4. 4. GENERAL OBJETIVE • “To study the effect of trees of Pinus contorta plantation, under silvopastoral management, in the productivity of the pasture and livestock, and in changing climatic variables in their environment.”
  5. 5. MATERIALS AND METHODS Name of Treatments T1. Traditional silvopastoral system, with natural pasture, improved by fertilization. T2. Strips silvopastoral Systems, with natural pasture, improved by fertilization. Descriptions of Treatments Pasture covered by 357 trees ha-1, distributed homogeneously, pruned to 3,2 m. Pasture covered by 400 trees ha-1, in strips of tree lines of plantations, 21 m apart each other, pruned to 3,2 m Area of pasture T3. Livestock without trees system, with natural pasture improved by fertilization. Average distance of climate stations to nearest tree(m). 2,5 10,5 Without trees
  6. 6. May, 2004 T1.Traditional Silvopastoral: 400 trees/ha, pruned to 3,2 m. Stat. Design: 3 plots of 1.000 m2 T2. Strip Silvopastoral: 400 trees/ha, pruned to 3,2 m. Stat. Design: 3 plots of 1.000 m2 T3.Livestock treatment, without trees in the pasture Modification of forest plantation May, 2010
  7. 7. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
  8. 8. RESULTS  FOREST PARAMETERS  PASTURE PRODUCTION  LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION  MICROCLIMATE  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARAMETERS FOREST, MICROCLIMETE AND PRODUCTION OF PASTURE AND LIVESTOCK
  9. 9. Results: FOREST PARAMETERS Table 2. Results from 2004 to 2008 of total height (m), diameter at breast height (DBH), canopy cover (%) and basal area (BA) in silvopastoral treatments. T1.Traditional Silvopastoral T2. Strip Silvopastoral Year DBH BA H C.cover DBH BA H C.cover (cm) (m² haˉ¹) (m) (%) (cm) (m² haˉ¹) (m) (%) 2004 12,9 4,8 6,0 14,5 13,0 5,4 5,6 24,2 2005 14,2 5,8 6,4 14,1 6,4 6,1 2006 16,0 7,3 6,8 21,7 15,6 8,3 6,5 27,1 2007 17,8 9,1 7,2 31,1 17,1 9,9 7,0 28,9 2008 19,1 10,3 7,6 32,2 18,0 11,0 7,5 30,7 *: Different letters indicate significant differences (p<= 0.05)
  10. 10. Results: Pasture Production Table 3. Pasture Production, 2004-2005 to 2007-2008 season (kg DM ha-1). Pasture production per season (kg MS ha-1)* Treatment 2004-2005 2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008 T1.Traditional Silvopastoral 1485,7a 6109,7a 4153,2b 4330,9b T2. Strip Silvopastoral 2684,9a 7181,6a 6394,5a 5359,7a 3832,0b 3874,1b 3513,6b T3: Livestock management 2452,1a * Different letters indicate significant differences (p<= 0.05)
  11. 11. Livestock Production from 2004 to 2008 Table 4. Animal productivity per effective hectare of meadow by treatment, 2004-2005 to 2007-2008 seasons, San Gabriel property, Coyhaique, Chile. Live weight gain per effectively ha of pasture and season Treatment Total production (kg ha-1)* 2004 a 2008 2004-2005 2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008 (kg ha-1) T1.Trad. Silvopastoral 113,8a 238,6a 305,8a 158,9a 817,0 T2. Strip Silvopastoral 110,2a 255,7a 317,8a 172,3a 855,9 T3. Livestock management 95,8a 227,9a 348,4a 144,4a 816,5 * Different letters indicate significant differences (p <= 0.05)
  12. 12. CLIMATE PARAMETERS • WIND Figure 1. Average wind speed, January 2007 to June 2008, per treatment.
  13. 13. CLIMATE PARAMETERS WIND: Average Maximum Wind Speed km/hr:  WITH PEAKS MORE THAN 80 KM/HR
  14. 14. CLIMATE PARAMETERS
  15. 15. TEMPERATURE – RELATIVE HUMIDITY-PRECIPITATION Average Temperature T ºC Relative Humidity per treatment (HR%) 86,0 14,0 13,0 12,0 81,0 11,0 10,0 9,0 76,0 8,0 7,0 71,0 6,0 5,0 4,0 66,0 3,0 2,0 1,0 61,0 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 T3.Livestock Jan-08 Feb-08 T1.Sil.Tradit Mar-08 Apr-08 May-08 Month-year T2.Sil.Strip Feb07 Mar07 Apr07 May07 Jun- Jul-07 Ago07 07 T3.Livestock Figure 5. Average monthly temperature, years 2007-2008, per treatment. mm Jan07 Jun-08 Sep07 Oct07 T1.Sil.Tradit Precipitation per Treatment Month-Year 64,0 54,0 44,0 34,0 24,0 14,0 4,0 Feb07 Mar- Apr- May- Jun07 07 07 07 Jul07 Ago- Sep07 07 T3.Livestock Feb08 Mar08 Apr08 May08 Jun- Month08 year T2.Sil.Strip Figure 6. Average relative humidity per month, years 2007-2008, per treatment. 74,0 Jan07 Nov- Dec-07 Jan07 08 Oct07 Nov07 T1.Sil.Tradit Dec- Jan07 08 Feb08 T2.Sil.Strip Mar- Apr- May- Jun08 08 08 08 Month-year Figure 7. Average precipitation per month, January 2007 to June 2008, per treatment.
  16. 16. ANALYSIS: RELASHIONSHIP BETWEEN PRODUCTIVITY PARAMETERS OF THE SYSTEM AND CLIMATE.  ¿WHAT IS THE KEY FACTOR TO MANAGE FOR ANIMAL PRODUCTION IN THE PATAGONIAN REGION OF CHILE? Crown cover of trees-Wind Crown cover- Dry matter (DM)  Traditional Treatment Strip Treatment 6531,42 3446,08 5033,25 a h / M D 8029,60 4720,05 a h / M D 5994,02 2172,11 898,15 11,97 3535,08 18,05 24,13 30,21 36,28 C.cover (%) Regression T1.Traditional Silvopastoral Variable R² kg DM ha-1 0,88 2036,90 23,57 25,65 27,73 29,80 C.cover (%) Regression T2. Strip Silvopastoral Variable R² kg DM ha-1 0,69 Figure 9. Lineal regression C.cover (%) - DM (kg DM ha-1), silvopastoral treatments, seasons 2004 a 2008. 31,88  IT APPEARS THAT MANAGING CROWN COVER OF TREES TO REDUCE WIND SPEED
  17. 17. ANALYSIS: RELASHIONSHIP BETWEEN PRODUCTIVITY PARAMETERS AND CLIMATE Livestock Production -Wind Regression Wind - Animal Prod., Season 2007-2008 180,10 168,55 l a m i n A d o r P 157,00 145,45 133,90 1,49 3,75 6,00 8,25 10,51 Wind Regression wind-animal prod. Variable Animal prod. kg ha-1 R² 0,86 -1 Figure 10: Regression average wind velocity (km hr ) - animal production -1 (kg liveweight ha ), season 2007-2008.
  18. 18. ANALYSIS: RELASHIONSHIP OF MORE THAN ONE VARIABLE BETWEEN PRODUCTIVITY PARAMETERS*CLIMATE*DM Animal production model, using  Amimal Prod = f (C.cover*wind) and; f (C.cover*wind*DM) interactions: Table 9. Statisticians regression of animal production, depending on C.cover*wind. Variable R² Animal Prod. (kg live weight ha-1) 0,92 Table 10. Statisticians regression of animal production, depending on C.cover * Wind * MS. Variable R² Animal Prod. (kg live weight ha-1) 0,96  THIS MEANS FOR PRODUCERS,  IF THEY MAINTAIN A GOOD QUALITY PASTURE, THE FACTOR THAT IT IS INFLUENCING LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IS WIND, THAT CAN MANAGE WITH TREES IN SILVOPASTORAL DESIGN
  19. 19. CONCLUSIONS • It can be concluded that the trees ordered in silvopastoral treatments modified some climatic parameters of the environment. For the purposes of this study, and related to two important aspects to this study, production of the pasture and livestock, the parameter most affected by trees was the wind. • Silvopastoral treatments substantially reduced the average wind speed in relation to the control treatment (livestock), with a lower wind speed of more than 200%. Regarding Wind chill, values were between 22 and 26% higher for silvopastoral strips and traditional treatment, • Silvopastoral treatments led to greater pasture production in the four seasons of production evaluated in relation to traditional livestock management system for that region, which is to have areas of pasture unprotected by trees. The factor that mostly influences the increase in productivity of pasture was the effect of the crown of trees that reduced wind speed by 200%. • Animal production was also associated with the interaction of wind and tree crown cover. • It is possible to recommend to livestock producers of the Aysen Region of Chile, using trees in silvopastoral system in order to increase production as well as to improve animal welfare.
  20. 20. THANKS • Dr. Alvaro Sotomayor1 asotomay@infor.cl www.infor.cl; www.agroforesteria.cl

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