Synergies and trade-offs amongst
multiple functions of trees in agricultural
landscapes in Sub-Saharan Africa
S Kuyah, I Ö...
Outline
• Introduction and research question
• Literature review and synthesis
• Assessing ecosystem services
provided by ...
Trees in agricultural landscapes
provide ecosystem services
Ecosystem service categories (MA, 2005);
• provisioning (e.g. ...
Multi-functional landscapes in sub-
Saharan Africa
• Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is home to ≈910 million
people (The World Ba...
Overall question
• What is the present scientific evidence base that
integration of trees on farms and in agricultural
lan...
Methodology
Structured literature search
Relevant studies
• Peer reviewed journals
• Agricultural landscapes within
sub-Sa...
Ecosystem services provided by trees
Results
• A total of 409 studies at 202
sites in 23 countries
• Relevant to 4 agro-ec...
Ecosystem services provided by trees
1%
46%
27%
25%
Arid Semi-arid
Sub-humid Humid
Results
• A total of 409 studies at 202...
Ecosystem services provided by trees
33.3
28.4
38.1
0.2
Provisioning Regulating
Supporting Cultural
Results
• A total of 4...
Ecosystem services provided by trees
Results
• A total of 409 studies at 202
sites in 23 countries
• Relevant to 4 agro-ec...
Benefits and Tradeoffs
• Ecosystem services are interlinked, and they interact
• Management practices alter a range of eco...
Benefits and Tradeoffs
• Ecosystem services are interlinked, and they interact
• Management practices alter a range of eco...
Benefits and Tradeoffs
More value is placed in provisioning services
Results
0
10
20
30
40
Food
Fodder
Nutrient
cycling
So...
Benefits and Tradeoffs
More value is placed in provisioning services
Results
0
20
40
60
80
Food
Fodder
Nutrient
cycling
So...
Conclusion
• Trees play a crucial role in sustaining productivity of
agricultural systems, but there are also tradeoffs, i...
Acknowledgement
The study was supported by funds
allocated to the Swedish University of
Agricultural Sciences by the Swedi...
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Session 3.6 synergies & trade offs amngst multiple fxns of trees

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Session 3.6 synergies & trade offs amngst multiple fxns of trees

  1. 1. Synergies and trade-offs amongst multiple functions of trees in agricultural landscapes in Sub-Saharan Africa S Kuyah, I Öborn, A Malmer, E Barrios, A S Dahlin, M Jonsson, C Muthuri, S Namirembe, J Nyaga, Y Nyberg, F L. Sinclair
  2. 2. Outline • Introduction and research question • Literature review and synthesis • Assessing ecosystem services provided by trees • Benefits and tradeoffs between ecosystem services • Lessons learned and knowledge gaps
  3. 3. Trees in agricultural landscapes provide ecosystem services Ecosystem service categories (MA, 2005); • provisioning (e.g. food, fodder), • regulating (e.g. microclimate), • supporting (e.g. nutrient cycling), • cultural (e.g. shade, aesthetic). jackfruit Shaded tea Calliandra hedges
  4. 4. Multi-functional landscapes in sub- Saharan Africa • Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is home to ≈910 million people (The World Bank, 2012) • About 63% of this population dwell in rural, and rely on ecosystem services • Multifunctional landscapes offer a range of multiple ecosystem services relevant to SSA
  5. 5. Overall question • What is the present scientific evidence base that integration of trees on farms and in agricultural landscapes will contribute to enhanced agricultural productivity, resource utilization and livelihoods for smallholder farmers? • Are all these benefits indeed co-benefits or are there trade-offs, and are there empirical studies available for relevant scales and contexts?
  6. 6. Methodology Structured literature search Relevant studies • Peer reviewed journals • Agricultural landscapes within sub-Saharan Africa Information sources • Web of science, Scopus, Science direct Search strings combining variants of ecosystem services produced by trees Bias minimised by multiple reviewers Synthesis Number of studies determined by vote-count Positive (+) or negative (-) impact of trees captured where significant Stratification based on • Ecosystem categories • Agro-ecological zones • Field, farm and landscape
  7. 7. Ecosystem services provided by trees Results • A total of 409 studies at 202 sites in 23 countries • Relevant to 4 agro-ecological zones. • The ecosystem services are grouped into four major classes • The ecosystem services are produced, utilized and assessed at different scales
  8. 8. Ecosystem services provided by trees 1% 46% 27% 25% Arid Semi-arid Sub-humid Humid Results • A total of 409 studies at 202 sites in 23 countries • Relevant to 4 agro-ecological zones. • The ecosystem services are grouped into four major classes • The ecosystem services are produced, utilized and assessed at different scales
  9. 9. Ecosystem services provided by trees 33.3 28.4 38.1 0.2 Provisioning Regulating Supporting Cultural Results • A total of 409 studies at 202 sites in 23 countries • Relevant to 4 agro-ecological zones. • The ecosystem services are grouped into four major classes • The ecosystem services are produced, utilized and assessed at different scales
  10. 10. Ecosystem services provided by trees Results • A total of 409 studies at 202 sites in 23 countries • Relevant to 4 agro-ecological zones. • The ecosystem services are grouped into four major classes • The ecosystem services are produced, utilized and assessed at different scales 63 23 14 Field Farm Landscape
  11. 11. Benefits and Tradeoffs • Ecosystem services are interlinked, and they interact • Management practices alter a range of ecosystem services positively, yielding benefits or negatively resulting in tradeoffs Results Enclosures in grazing areas Guava tree planted at river bank
  12. 12. Benefits and Tradeoffs • Ecosystem services are interlinked, and they interact • Management practices alter a range of ecosystem services positively, yielding benefits or negatively, resulting in tradeoffs Results
  13. 13. Benefits and Tradeoffs More value is placed in provisioning services Results 0 10 20 30 40 Food Fodder Nutrient cycling Soil fertility Carbon storage Microclimate Benefits
  14. 14. Benefits and Tradeoffs More value is placed in provisioning services Results 0 20 40 60 80 Food Fodder Nutrient cycling Soil fertility Carbon storage Microclimate Tradeoffs 0 10 20 30 40 Food Fodder Nutrient cycling Soil fertility Carbon storage Microclimate Benefits
  15. 15. Conclusion • Trees play a crucial role in sustaining productivity of agricultural systems, but there are also tradeoffs, in particular with food crops • Ecosystem services are often studied at lower (field) scale than where they are produced and utilized • Many ecosystem services from trees are known to be produced in forest areas, but few studies on farms
  16. 16. Acknowledgement The study was supported by funds allocated to the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences by the Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs as part of its special effort on global food security.

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