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Session 3.3 Moringa for improved nutrition


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Moringa – a vegetable tree for improved nutrition, health and income of smallholder farmers - by Andreas W. Ebert and Manuel C. Palada

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Session 3.3 Moringa for improved nutrition

  1. 1. Leaves Pods Flowers Seeds Root s Bark Gum Nutrition Medicine Nutrition Medicine Water purification Medicine Oil Medicine Cosmetics Dyes Medicine Medicine Condiment Stem Fuel wood Pulp Paper Medicine Glue
  2. 2. Moringa species in AVRDC’s collection (64 accessions)
  3. 3. Moringa species in AVRDC’s collection
  4. 4. Moringa oleifera       
  5. 5. Nutritional composition of moringa  Moringa leaves are eaten fresh, cooked, or stored as fresh powder  Drying moringa leaves at 50 oC for 16 h maintained nutrient and phytochemical levels, except vitamin C  Boiling leaves and dried powder enhanced AOA (x 3.5) and increased bioavailable iron (x 3) (> Fe in mungbean) Micronutrients Tomato Moringa Nutrient content of moringa relative to tomato Β-carotene, mg 0.40 15.28 x 38.2 Vitamin C, mg 19 459 x 24.2 Vitamin E, mg 1.16 25.25 x 21.8 Iron, mg 0.54 10.09 x 18.7 Folates, µg 5 93 x 18.6 Antioxidant activity, TE 323 2858 x 8.8
  6. 6. Nutritional composition of moringa in comparison with other vegetable crops Micronu- trients Tomato Cabbage Moringa Ama- ranth Slippery cabbage Sweet potato leaf β-carotene, mg 0.40 0.00 15.28 9.23 5.11 6.82 Vitamin C, mg 19 22 459 113 82 81 Vitamin E, mg 1.16 0.05 25.25 3.44 4.51 4.69 Iron, mg 0.54 0.30 10.09 5.54 1.40 1.88 Folates, µg 5 ND 93 78 177 39 Antioxidant activity, TE 323 496 2858 394 560 870
  7. 7. Nutritional highlights of Moringa oleifera  Among 4 moringa species (oleifera, stenopetala, peregrina drouhardii) M. oleifera had the highest concentration of β-carotene, ascorbate (vitamin C), α-tocopherol (vitamin E), and iron and the second highest protein content (after stenopetala).  Antinutrients: oligosaccharides (stachyose, raffinose) not detected in mature moringa leaves; oxalate content lower than in spinach leaves.  Moringa leaves are rich in protein (9.4 g/100 g FW), comprising all essential amino acids in well balanced proportions. Cooking increased protein digestibility of leaves by 20.7%.  Moringa is an ideal crop to combat malnutrition. Dried leaf powder is processed into capsules and used as energy and health supplement. Leaf powder added to soybean and groundnut/peanut paste is used as ready-to-use food (RUF) for treatment of severe acute malnutrition of children and pregnant/nursing mothers.
  8. 8.  Quicker recovery of weight-for-age (underweight) and weight-for-height (wasting) Rehabilitation of severely malnourished children with moringa in Ouagadougou  Greater improvement in wasting and underweight metrics  Average daily weight gain: 8.9 g/kg/d with moringa vs. 5.7 g/kg/d with standard porridge  Average length of care at inpatient rehabilitation unit: 36 days w/ moringa vs. 57 days w/ standard porridge  No significant difference in height over course of study  Profound change in frequency of diarrhea: 8% w/ moringa vs. 80% w/ standard porridge Source: Zongo et al. 2013
  9. 9. Fortified food products and supplements of moringa Instant Noodle Moringa Capsule Moringa Powder Coffee Moringa DrinkGarlic Bread Taro ChipsTea Fig. 7. Moringa fortified food products and supplements Instant Noodle Moringa Capsule Moringa Powder Coffee Moringa DrinkGarlic Bread Taro ChipsTea
  10. 10. Medicinal uses of moringa  Moringa is rich in glucosinulates and isothiocyanates (ITCs). ITCs inhibit mitosis and stimulate apoptosis, eliminating DNA-damaged, unwanted cells in human tumor cells. Plant material with high glucosinulate content (like moringa) is desirable for cancer therapy.  Moringa contains rhamnose, a deoxyhexose sugar found widely in glycoconjugates of plants and bacteria, not in animals and humans; used for therapeutic interventions.  Dietary or topical administration of moringa as extracts, decoctions, creams, oils, powders, and porridges have antibiotic, antitrypanasomal, hypotensive, antispasmodic, antiulcer, anti- inflammatory, hypo-cholersterolemic, and hypoglycemic activities.  Consumption of moringa leaves enhances lactation and postpartum milk production of mothers with preterm infants.  Moringa powder acts as immune stimulant in HIV/AIDS treatment.  Reduction in skin papillomas was observed following ingestion of moringa seedpod extracts.
  11. 11.  The mechanism of cardio protection involves the prevention of the disruption in cardiac myofibrils, possibly through a reduction of oxidative stress leading to improved cardiac contractile function.  Isoproterenol generates free radicals and stimulates lipid peroxidation, a causative factor for damaging the myocardial tissues.  Thus, it appears that the beneficial action of the indole alkaloid from moringa is mediated through its free radical scavenging property.
  12. 12. Body treatment solution Body butter Shower creams, shampoos Bath soap Moringa oilBath foamAnti-aging cream Cosmetic products with moringa ingredients
  13. 13.  Animal forage; green manure Agronomic, horticultural and industrial uses  Foliar nutrient for enhancing growth (growth regulator)  Fertilizer (seed cake)  Fungicide (leaves incorporated into soil)  Biogas; blue dye (wood); gum (tree trunk)  Honey clarification (powdered seeds); water purification (seed cake)  Oil for cooking or lubrication; biofuel production  Windbreak or living fence; support for climbers (yams, beans)  Component of agroforestry systems for sustainable vegetable production and intercropping
  14. 14. Moringa cultivation Plant density (plants/ha Fresh matter (t/ha/cutting) Dry matter (t/ha) Protein (kg/ha) 95,000 19.6 3.33 566 350,000 29.7 5.05 859 900,000 52.6 8.94 1,520 1,000,000 78.0 13.26 2,254 Source: Fuglie 2001  Philippines: 159,000 plants/ha; 1500 kg urea per ha; harvest every 4 weeks > 100% return on investment. Plant density Net benefit (US$) 1,600 plants/ha 1st year 2nd year 3rd year 7,367 11,985 12,017 India, Odisha State; Saha et al. 2012) Source: Mamaril 2010
  15. 15.  Moringa has good potential to fight hunger and malnutrition, at low cost Conclusion  Significant increase of income of smallholder farmers  Enhancing environmental services (control of soil and wind erosion; shade; clean water)  Good adaptability – high value for sustainable food production and climate change scenarios.
  16. 16. First International Symposium on Moringa 19 – 21 November 2015 Manila, Philippines Theme Moringa – A Decade of Advances in Research & Development Topics: • Ethnobotany, Genetics, Biodiversity • Propagation • Climate, Soil and Agronomy • Cropping Systems and Production Economics • Harvesting, Postharvest and Processing • Nutritional Quality • Medicinal Properties • Livestock Feed • Industrial Uses: Biofuel, Cosmetics, Water Treatment • Farmer Participatory, Community Livelihood MPFI First Announcement
  17. 17. The World Vegetable Center @ 40 “Prosperity for the Poor and Health for All”
  18. 18. Thank you for your attention!