Session 3.2 alley coppice innovative agroforestry system

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Session 3.2 alley coppice innovative agroforestry system

  1. 1. Alley Coppice : an innovative agroforestry system that combines timber and energy wood production Dupraz C., Tosi L., Paris P., Facciotto G., André J., Graves A., Lunny R., Morhart C., Nahm M. Christian DUPRAZ, Jérémy ANDRE  : Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique France Luca TOSI, Piero PARIS : Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche; Italy Gianni FACCIOTTO : CRA- PLF Italy Anil R. GRAVES : Cranfield University United Kingdom Rory LUNNY : Teagasc –, Ireland Christopher MORHART : Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Germany Michael NAHM : Forest Research Institute Baden-Württemberg, Germany    
  2. 2. Two options available : Competition : Short Rotation Coppice, Afforestation, Annual crops for energy (cereals, oilcrops..) Complementarity : Biomass from food crop residues Agrivoltaism AF systems that produce energy from trees and food from crops (or the reverse) Food versus Energy : the « competition for land » issue in Europe
  3. 3. Agrivoltaïsm
  4. 4. Biomass for energy from trees in AF systems ? Two ways : ● Energy from coppiced trees : SRC (Short Rotation Coppice) ● As the intercrop ● On the tree line ● Energy from standard pollarded trees : dual purpose trees (timber-energy)
  5. 5. To mix or not to mix, that is always the question
  6. 6. Indicators of the productivity of mixtures • Land Equivalent Ratio LER (Mead and Willey, 1980) • LER = Sum (Relative Yields) = RYtree + RYcrop
  7. 7. Indicators of the productivity of mixtures • Range of LER values : – 0.9 to 1.1 for mixtures of annual species – 1.0 to 1.2 for legumes/non legumes annual species – – ? in silvoarable agroforestry – ? in agrivoltaism – – Unknown for SRC-AF systems – Unknown for Pollarded trees – AF systems »
  8. 8. 1.36 Measured LER Poplars-winter cereals, 14 years rotation
  9. 9. Predicted modelled LER Tree density Pruning height Tree row orientation 1.2 to 1.6
  10. 10. Agrivoltaïc LERs measured : 1.5 to 1.7
  11. 11. Indicators of the productivity of mixtures • Range of LER values : 0.9 to 1.1 for mixtures of annual species 1.0 to 1.2 for legumes/non legumes species 1.2 to 1.6 in silvoarable agroforestry 1.5 to 1.7 in agrivoltaism Unknown for SRC-AF systems Unknown for Pollarded trees – AF systems »
  12. 12. Energy from AF systems : 1. The SRC intercrop option
  13. 13. Energy from AF systems : 1. The SRC intercrop option The concern : LERs for SRC-AF may be much lower... than LERs for annual crops-AF
  14. 14. Simultaneous planting of timber trees and SRC
  15. 15. France Germany Italy
  16. 16. Some results from our oldest experiment Results presented were obtained in a 7-year old experimental field, located in Northern Italy. This has Pyrus and Sorbus as timber trees, and poplar SRC grown in a two-year rotation cycle. Gianni Facciotto and colleagues CNR, Casale-monferrato, Italy CNR, IBAF, Porano, Italy Universita di Torino, Italy
  17. 17. Site of experimental trial: Casale Monferrato – AL Lat: 45°08' N Long: 8°30’ E Alt: 106 m a.s.l. 1
  18. 18. Timber trees Pyrus and Sorbus clones propagated in vitroculture (Univ. Milano) Short Rotation Coppice Poplar clones: Populus deltoides Lux P. deltoides Oglio P. ×canadensis Triplo
  19. 19. Pure Pear Pure Sorbus Near Pear Near Sorbus Between Pear Between Sorbus 0,0 10,0 20,0 30,0 40,0 50,0 60,0 DbHmm Timber tree growth Pure = Trees without SRC - Near = Trees with SRC only on one side Between = Trees with SRC on both sides
  20. 20. Short Rotation Coppice yields Triplo Oglio Lux 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 2008 2010 2012 Clones Biomass(tha-1) Oven dry tons per hectare
  21. 21. Sensitivity to SRC competition varies between tree species Reduction of timber trees growth by SRC competition not correlated to SRC productivity Conclusions : Improved and very productive SRC-AF possible LERs of SRC-AF not yet available (modelling in progress)
  22. 22. Energy from AF systems : 2. The Pollarded trees option
  23. 23. 31/03/2013
  24. 24. 10/10/2013
  25. 25. Modelling pollarded trees AF systems with the Hi-sAFe model Timber growth stopped (but contradictory with field observations during the first year after pollarding) Branches growth stimulated Crop yield sustained Time of first pollarding
  26. 26. RYs of AF systems with standard or pollarded trees RYs Trunk Branches Crop Standard Pollarded Pure forestry Pure crops 0.62 0.18 1 0 1.1 1.84 1 0 0.68 0.81 0 1 Hi-sAFe model, André, Molto, Dupraz, in prep
  27. 27. Standard Pollarded Crop & branches 1.78 2.65 Crop & timber 1.31 0.99 LERs of AF systems with standard or pollarded trees
  28. 28. Agroforestry systems with pollarded walnut trees First evaluation by modeling and field monitoring J. André, Q. Molto, G. Talbot, L. Dufour, J-F Bourdoncle, A. Sellier, C. Dupraz Poster available.... please pay us a visit !
  29. 29. Take home Conclusions : SRC-AF may have intermediate LERs (profitability to be assessed) Pollarded trees-AF may have very high LERs Farmers were wise....
  30. 30. Thank you for your attention

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