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Session 3.1 agroforestry for wood and food security

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Session 3.1 agroforestry for wood and food security

  1. 1. World Congress on Agro-forestry New Delhi -2014 Agro-Forestry for Food and Wood Security – An Industry Experience in India Dr. H D Kulkarni Vice President (Plantations) ITC Ltd.,Paperboards & Specialty Papers Division Hyderabad (A.P.) India
  2. 2. • World-over the common practice for growing tree plantation (Pulpwood) on large scale is to plant with a single species. • On the other hand, mixed and agro-forestry plantations are very rare in occurrence (except for Coffee, Tea, Coconut, Areca nut, Palm oil plantation etc) • A lot of research is done on planting geometry involving trees and crops but large-scale commercial Agro-Forestry plantations are not common. World scenario
  3. 3. ITC Plantation - A Case Study • ITC Paperboards & Specialty Papers Division, Unit: Bhadrachalam, produces 320,000 tonnes of pulp with 1200,000 tonnes of wood per annum • To meet the wood requirement, the company embarked on Social / Farm forestry programme. • ITC’s strategy is to raise pulpwood plantations commensurate with wood consumption. • The Pioneering Tree Improvement Programme on Eucalyptus, Casuarina and Leucaena was launched in 1989 which resulted into release of improved clones - popularly known as “ITC Bhadrachalam clones” • Selection and breeding along with Root trainer technology was employed for improving the productivity of plantations in India. • The survival percentage of clonal plantations is more than 95 compared to 40 to 60% of seedling based plantations. • The productivity range from 20 to 58 t/ha/yr compared to 6 to 10 t/ha/yr from seedling origin plantations.
  4. 4. • 107 Eucalyptus , 12 Subabul and 15 Casuarina site specific and disease resistant clones were developed. • New generation hybrids were also developed with higher productivity and adaptability. • To ensure availability of high quality, genetically pure planting material to the farmers a “State of the Art Sapling” production centre with Israeli technology was established with a capacity of 25 Million saplings per year.
  5. 5. Clones Grown on Red Soil Clones Grown on Black Soil
  6. 6. Clonal Eucalyptus Plantations 4 Year old 2 Year old 1 Year old
  7. 7. ITC Plantations 4 year old Eucalyptus plantation 3 year old Casuarina plantation 2 year old subabul clonal plantation
  8. 8. EUCALYPTUS WITH CHILLIEUCALYPTUS WITH CHILLI Agro-Forestry (Intercropping)
  9. 9. EUCALYPTUS WITH DRYLAND PADDYEUCALYPTUS WITH UPLAND PADDY
  10. 10. EUCALYPTUS WITH TURMERICEUCALYPTUS WITH TURMERIC
  11. 11. Eucalyptus with Ridge gourdEucalyptus with Ridge gourd
  12. 12. Eucalyptus with Banana
  13. 13. Developing Sustainable Agro-Forestry Models for Wood & Food Security Objective: 1. To improve the farm productivity & profitability by integrating trees in farm land. 2. To take pressure off from the remaining natural forests for wood supply. 3. To bring in diversification on farm lands Agro-Forestry
  14. 14. Normal Practice (Block Planting) – Planting Geometry Age of Harvesting Spacing No of Trees/Ha 1) 9-10 Year 3m X 3m 1111 2) 7 Years 3m X 2m 1667 3) 4 Years 3m X 1.5m 2222 3m Farm Forestry & Social Forestry
  15. 15. New Concept 1.5M Design: 8.5m + 1.5m / 2 X 1.0m = 5sq.m (2000 Trees/Ha) Land Allocation: 75% - Agriculture & 25% - Forestry 8.5M 8.5M Agric Crop Area Agric Crop Area Pulpwood Tree Plantation 1M
  16. 16. What is Novelty …??? 1. Planting Eucalyptus in Paired Row Design. 2. Accommodating 2000 Trees/Ha in 2500sq.m. 3. Harvesting same wood yield as in block plantation. 4. Natural resource utilization round the year. 5. Leaving 7500sq.m land for agriculture crop. 6. Raising agriculture crop in 75% area is bonus. Earlier Concept : Agric Crops in Plantations Recent Approach : Plantations in Agric Crops
  17. 17. Agro forestry plantation in M.P. (Euca + Wheat)
  18. 18. The Big Challenge … Different Crops have Different Planting Density 1. Tobacco = 105cm X 60cm = 6,349 Plants/Acre 2. Cotton = 75cm X 75cm = 7,111 Plants/Acre 3. Chilli = 60cm X 60cm = 11,111 Plants/Acre 4. Sunflower = 60cm X 30cm = 22,222 Plants/Acre 5. Maize = 60cm X 25cm = 26,667 Plants /Acre
  19. 19. Adoption of the new concept – Location 1 Farmer : Mr. N Venkateswara Rao Village : Vinayakpuram, Aswraraopeta Distt : Khammam, AP DOP : July, 2010 Age : 15 months old euca Area : 3 acres Remarks : No effect of Euca on cotton 1st crop: Cotton 5qtl/ac 2nd Crop – Cotton GBH: 19.5cm “Eucalyptus recorded 14.7% higher growth”
  20. 20. Adoption of the new concept – Location 2 Farmer : Mr. K. Kondandarama Rao Village : Mungamuru, Ongole Distt : Prakasam, AP DOP : Jan, 2011 Age : 10 months old Area : 6 acres Remarks : No effect of Euca on agri crops Farmer harvested 1st crop of Bengalgram average yield 6 qtl/acre 2nd crop – Cucumber1st crop – Bengalgram 2nd crop – Blackgram
  21. 21. Adoption of the new concept – Location 3 Farmer : Mr. K. Sambashivarao Village : Daggi, Sadashivanagar, Distt : Nizamabad, AP DOP : July 8-15, 2011 Age : 4 months old Area : 63 acres plot Remarks : No effect of Euca on maize crop Farmer harvested bumper crop of Maize Average yield 25qtl/acre 1.2m
  22. 22. Economic Analysis of Cotton + Eucalyptus Year Crop Yield Crop Reduction 1st 85% 15% 2nd 75% 25% 3rd 75% 25% 4th 70% 30% Suppose in 4 years farmer is loosing equal to one agri crop Average Yield of Cotton = 6-8 qtls/acre Avg Market Rate last year = Rs 3500 to 6500/- per qtl Gross income from Cotton = Rs 21,000 to 52,000 per acre Avg cost of cotton cultivation = Rs 14,000 per acre Net income from cotton = Rs 7,000 to 38,000 per acre Eucalyptus avg yield in 4 years = 40 to 60MT/acre Eucalyptus market rate = Rs 2,000/MT Gross income from Euca wood = Rs 80,000 to 1.2 Lac/acre Avg cost of euca cultivation = Rs 22,000/acre in 4 years Net income from Euca wood = Rs 58,000 to 98,000/acre in 4 year Worked out the C/B ratio which is remunerative than block planting. Agro-forestry model has the potential to double the farm income.
  23. 23. Journey So Far ………… 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 80 520 1827 4000 Agro Forestry Plantations = 6427 Ha Agro-forestry Demo plots
  24. 24. Benefits of Agro-Forestry 1. Improving the productivity & profitability of farm lands where one crop is grown in a year. 2. Contributing to the food security by restoring farm soil fertility for food crops. 3. Reducing deforestation and pressure on natural forests by providing pulpwood grown on farm lands. 4. Increasing diversity of farm lands by growing trees along with agriculture crops. 5. Trees act as wind and insect barriers and protect agri-crop 6. Reducing poverty through increased production of agro-forestry products. 7. Reduces the risk of rain-fed agriculture 8. Higher economic returns to the farmers 9. This model is best suited for small & medium farmers
  25. 25. ITC Plantation - A Case study The Company has promoted Social / farm forestry plantations over 158,000 ha with 714 million saplings from 1992 to 2013. 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 160000 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 17 56 218 457 1247 2007 3210 4565 6144 8591 12778 19584 29246 40896 65042 80158 90133 103469 113892 124910 142306 158971 Cimulative Plantation Area in Ha
  26. 26. ITC Plantation Reforestation CDM Project • Reforestation project (UNFCCC Reg. No. 2241) covering 3070.19 ha in Khammam district of Andhra Pradesh was registered on 5- 6-2009. • Generates 57791 CERs / yr and for a period of 30 years 1.87 mn CERs. • on 14-12-2012, UNFCCC has issued 403,610 CERs. Forest Stewardship Council certification • The FSC FM Certificate for 22,565 ha in India is the first certificate to the paper industry.
  27. 27. EES Benefits • The ITC agro-forestry plantations of 158,000 ha over one 4 year cycle - Create an estimated wood asset value of INR 4514 cr (US$ 75 million) -@yield of 100 MT/Ha and average price of Rs.3500/MT. - Off-set 28.9 million tons CO2 and - Create estimated employment for 71 million persons days from various activities Thus, Greening the Triple Bottom line ( EES) and Creating Enduring Value to the Nation.
  28. 28. Even if 3% of the net cultivated area under rain-fed conditions (75 Mn Ha) is brought under Agro-forestry systems, it can meet the entire pulpwood requirements of the country and contributes towards enhanced incomes to the communities and arrests land degradation. Thus, Agro-forestry with innovative planting geometry will be a true sustainable model leading to best sustainable practice in India. Conclusion
  29. 29. Thank you Plantation on wasteland Agro-forestry (Euca + Wheat)

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