Session 3.1 agroforestry for wood and food security
World Congress on Agro-forestry
New Delhi -2014
Agro-Forestry for Food and Wood Security –
An Industry Experience in India
Dr. H D Kulkarni
Vice President (Plantations)
ITC Ltd.,Paperboards & Specialty Papers Division
Hyderabad (A.P.) India
• World-over the common practice for growing tree plantation (Pulpwood) on
large scale is to plant with a single species.
• On the other hand, mixed and agro-forestry plantations are very rare in
occurrence (except for Coffee, Tea, Coconut, Areca nut, Palm oil plantation etc)
• A lot of research is done on planting geometry involving trees and crops
but large-scale commercial Agro-Forestry plantations are not common.
ITC Plantation - A Case Study
• ITC Paperboards & Specialty Papers Division, Unit: Bhadrachalam, produces 320,000 tonnes
of pulp with 1200,000 tonnes of wood per annum
• To meet the wood requirement, the company embarked
on Social / Farm forestry programme.
• ITC’s strategy is to raise pulpwood plantations
commensurate with wood consumption.
• The Pioneering Tree Improvement Programme on Eucalyptus,
Casuarina and Leucaena was launched in 1989
which resulted into release of improved clones
- popularly known as “ITC Bhadrachalam clones”
• Selection and breeding along with
Root trainer technology was employed
for improving the productivity of plantations
• The survival percentage of clonal plantations is more than
95 compared to 40 to 60% of seedling based plantations.
• The productivity range from 20 to 58 t/ha/yr compared to
6 to 10 t/ha/yr from seedling origin plantations.
• 107 Eucalyptus , 12 Subabul and 15 Casuarina site specific and disease
resistant clones were developed.
• New generation hybrids were also developed with higher productivity and
• To ensure availability of high quality, genetically pure planting material to the
farmers a “State of the Art Sapling” production centre with Israeli technology
was established with a capacity of 25 Million saplings per year.
on Red Soil
on Black Soil
Clonal Eucalyptus Plantations
4 Year old
2 Year old
1 Year old
4 year old Eucalyptus plantation
3 year old Casuarina plantation 2 year old subabul clonal plantation
EUCALYPTUS WITH CHILLIEUCALYPTUS WITH CHILLI
EUCALYPTUS WITH DRYLAND PADDYEUCALYPTUS WITH UPLAND PADDY
EUCALYPTUS WITH TURMERICEUCALYPTUS WITH TURMERIC
Eucalyptus with Ridge gourdEucalyptus with Ridge gourd
Developing Sustainable Agro-Forestry Models for
Wood & Food Security
1. To improve the farm productivity & profitability by integrating trees
in farm land.
2. To take pressure off from the remaining natural forests for wood
3. To bring in diversification on farm lands
Normal Practice (Block Planting) – Planting Geometry
Age of Harvesting Spacing No of Trees/Ha
1) 9-10 Year 3m X 3m 1111
2) 7 Years 3m X 2m 1667
3) 4 Years 3m X 1.5m 2222
Farm Forestry & Social Forestry
Design: 8.5m + 1.5m / 2 X 1.0m = 5sq.m (2000 Trees/Ha)
Land Allocation: 75% - Agriculture & 25% - Forestry
Agric Crop Area Agric Crop Area
Pulpwood Tree Plantation
What is Novelty …???
1. Planting Eucalyptus in Paired Row Design.
2. Accommodating 2000 Trees/Ha in 2500sq.m.
3. Harvesting same wood yield as in block plantation.
4. Natural resource utilization round the year.
5. Leaving 7500sq.m land for agriculture crop.
6. Raising agriculture crop in 75% area is bonus.
Earlier Concept : Agric Crops in Plantations
Recent Approach : Plantations in Agric Crops
Agro forestry plantation in M.P. (Euca + Wheat)
The Big Challenge …
Different Crops have Different Planting Density
1. Tobacco = 105cm X 60cm = 6,349 Plants/Acre
2. Cotton = 75cm X 75cm = 7,111 Plants/Acre
3. Chilli = 60cm X 60cm = 11,111 Plants/Acre
4. Sunflower = 60cm X 30cm = 22,222 Plants/Acre
5. Maize = 60cm X 25cm = 26,667 Plants /Acre
Adoption of the new concept – Location 1
Farmer : Mr. N Venkateswara Rao
Village : Vinayakpuram, Aswraraopeta
Distt : Khammam, AP
DOP : July, 2010
Age : 15 months old euca
Area : 3 acres
Remarks : No effect of Euca on cotton
1st crop: Cotton 5qtl/ac 2nd Crop – Cotton
“Eucalyptus recorded 14.7% higher growth”
Adoption of the new concept – Location 2
Farmer : Mr. K. Kondandarama Rao
Village : Mungamuru, Ongole
Distt : Prakasam, AP
DOP : Jan, 2011
Age : 10 months old
Area : 6 acres
Remarks : No effect of Euca on agri crops
Farmer harvested 1st crop of Bengalgram average yield 6 qtl/acre
2nd crop – Cucumber1st crop – Bengalgram 2nd crop – Blackgram
Adoption of the new concept – Location 3
Farmer : Mr. K. Sambashivarao
Village : Daggi, Sadashivanagar,
Distt : Nizamabad, AP
DOP : July 8-15, 2011
Age : 4 months old
Area : 63 acres plot
Remarks : No effect of Euca on maize crop
Farmer harvested bumper crop of Maize Average yield 25qtl/acre
Economic Analysis of Cotton + Eucalyptus
Year Crop Yield Crop Reduction
1st 85% 15%
2nd 75% 25%
3rd 75% 25%
4th 70% 30%
Suppose in 4 years farmer is loosing equal to one agri crop
Average Yield of Cotton = 6-8 qtls/acre
Avg Market Rate last year = Rs 3500 to 6500/- per qtl
Gross income from Cotton = Rs 21,000 to 52,000 per acre
Avg cost of cotton cultivation = Rs 14,000 per acre
Net income from cotton = Rs 7,000 to 38,000 per acre
Eucalyptus avg yield in 4 years = 40 to 60MT/acre
Eucalyptus market rate = Rs 2,000/MT
Gross income from Euca wood = Rs 80,000 to 1.2 Lac/acre
Avg cost of euca cultivation = Rs 22,000/acre in 4 years
Net income from Euca wood = Rs 58,000 to 98,000/acre in 4 year
Worked out the C/B ratio which is remunerative than block planting.
Agro-forestry model has the potential
to double the farm income.
Benefits of Agro-Forestry
1. Improving the productivity & profitability of farm lands where one crop is
grown in a year.
2. Contributing to the food security by restoring farm soil fertility for food
3. Reducing deforestation and pressure on natural forests by providing
pulpwood grown on farm lands.
4. Increasing diversity of farm lands by growing trees along with agriculture
5. Trees act as wind and insect barriers and protect agri-crop
6. Reducing poverty through increased production of agro-forestry products.
7. Reduces the risk of rain-fed agriculture
8. Higher economic returns to the farmers
9. This model is best suited for small & medium farmers
ITC Plantation - A Case study
The Company has promoted Social / farm forestry plantations over 158,000
ha with 714 million saplings from 1992 to 2013.
17 56 218 457 1247 2007 3210 4565 6144 8591
Cimulative Plantation Area in Ha
Reforestation CDM Project
• Reforestation project (UNFCCC Reg. No. 2241) covering 3070.19
ha in Khammam district of Andhra Pradesh was registered on 5-
• Generates 57791 CERs / yr and for a period of 30 years 1.87 mn
• on 14-12-2012, UNFCCC has issued 403,610 CERs.
Forest Stewardship Council certification
• The FSC FM Certificate for 22,565 ha in India is the first
certificate to the paper industry.
• The ITC agro-forestry plantations of 158,000 ha over one 4
- Create an estimated wood asset value of INR 4514 cr (US$ 75
million) -@yield of 100 MT/Ha and average price of
- Off-set 28.9 million tons CO2 and
- Create estimated employment for 71 million persons days
from various activities
Thus, Greening the Triple Bottom line ( EES)
Creating Enduring Value to the Nation.
Even if 3% of the net cultivated area under rain-fed
conditions (75 Mn Ha) is brought under Agro-forestry
systems, it can meet the entire pulpwood requirements of
the country and contributes towards enhanced incomes
to the communities and arrests land degradation.
Thus, Agro-forestry with innovative planting geometry
will be a true sustainable model leading to best
sustainable practice in India.
Plantation on wasteland Agro-forestry (Euca + Wheat)