Sustainable Fodder Production
Strategy through Utilization of
Wastelands in Hills
J K Bisht,VPKAS, Almora
 Cultivated land - Residues, Weeds, Terrace risers, Slopes
 Fallow land - Grasses, Herbs, Shrubs
 Forest land - Grasses...
Different categories of land available for fodder cultivation
Landuse Area (million ha) Area available
for fodder
cultivat...
Constraints
Agro eco system constraints
 Shortage of fodder
 Overgrazing
 Rangeland deterioration
Management constrai...
Fodder Needs
Cattle population in UK = 48.87 lakh
Supply
 Green fodder = 105.12 (lakh t/year)
 Dry Fodder = 38.02 (lakh...
Year Supply Demand Deficit as % of demand
(actual demands)
Green Dry Green Dry Green Dry
1995 379 421 947 526 60 (568) 20 ...
Constraints
Agro eco system constraints
 Shortage of fodder
 Overgrazing
 Rangeland deterioration
Management constrai...
•Continuous grazing and over stocking
•Grazing of animals in large number too
early at regeneration stage
•grazing till th...
Constraints
Agro eco system constraints
 Shortage of fodder
 Overgrazing
 Rangeland deterioration
Management constrai...
Potential area for fodder production
 Fallow land - Grasses, Herbs, Shrubs
 Forest land - Grasses, Shrubs, Leaf fodder
...
Suitable Technologies
Wastelands and grasslands
Introduction of Improved Grasses and Legumes
Treatments Fodder
Yield (q/ha)
1. Pangola 272.8
2. Chrysopogon 238.3
3. Sirat...
Controlled Grazing
Enclosure period
Herbage
production
Average
(q/ha)
Species
(No.)
Open grassland 9.5 13.0
Two years’ clo...
Fertility Management
Nitrogen levels
(kg/ha)
Phosphorus levels
(kg/ha)
Mean
0 30 60
0 17.8 23.2 32.2 24.4
30 34.2 42.8 52....
P.dialataum
Paspalissum
P.clandestinum
C.plectortachus
Digitariasp.II
D.decumbanse
P.coloratum
One cut
Two cuts
0
100
200
...
Establishment of Kudzu
Utilization of Sloping Lands
Potential area for fodder production
 Fallow land - Grasses, Herbs, Shrubs
 Forest land - Grasses, Shrubs, Leaf fodder
...
Fodder production on forest floor
Green forage yield 400-800 q/ha
Hy. Napier at Different Sites
Silvipastoral System
Potential area for fodder production
 Fallow land - Grasses, Herbs, Shrubs
 Forest land - Grasses, Shrubs, Leaf fodder
...
High altitude Pasture
Potential area for fodder production
 Fallow land - Grasses, Herbs, Shrubs
 Forest land - Grasses, Shrubs, Leaf fodder
...
.
.
Silvihorti System
Agrihorti System
Potential area for fodder production
 Fallow land - Grasses, Herbs, Shrubs
 Forest land - Grasses, Shrubs, Leaf fodder
...
Hy, Napier on Field Terrace Risers
Tree Plantation
Fodder Production Round the Year in Hills
S.N. Months Fodder trees Grasses Cultivated
fodder
1 Dec-Jan. Grewia optiva,
Que...
Fodder Production Round the Year in Hills
S.N. Months Fodder trees Grasses Cultivated
fodder
3 Apr.-May Celtis austrelis,
...
S.N. Months Fodder trees Grasses Cultivated
fodder
5 Aug.-Sep Bauhinia
spp.,Albizia,
Morus alba,
Robinia pseudo
acacia and...
•A rational proportion of trees/ shrubs and grasses in grazing land
•Regulating grazing in pasture and grazing lands
•Plan...
•Participatory techniques to be adopted to identify the
problems and to carry out the improvement programme
•Tree canopy m...
Session 2.3 sustainable fodder production utilization of wastelands
Session 2.3 sustainable fodder production utilization of wastelands
Session 2.3 sustainable fodder production utilization of wastelands
Session 2.3 sustainable fodder production utilization of wastelands
Session 2.3 sustainable fodder production utilization of wastelands
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Session 2.3 sustainable fodder production utilization of wastelands

  1. 1. Sustainable Fodder Production Strategy through Utilization of Wastelands in Hills J K Bisht,VPKAS, Almora
  2. 2.  Cultivated land - Residues, Weeds, Terrace risers, Slopes  Fallow land - Grasses, Herbs, Shrubs  Forest land - Grasses, Shrubs, Leaf fodder  High altitude - Pastures: Grazing NWHR: It offers following sources of fodder Permanent pastures Land under misc. trees Forest area Land put to non agril. use Barren & uncult. waste Net sown area Cultivable waste Fallow-current & other Jammu & Kashmir 2.9% 1.6% 62.3% 4.5% 6.6% 16.6% 3.2% 2.3% Himachal Pradesh 35.1% 1.4% 30.8% 5.8% 4.4% 16.7% 3.5% 2.3% Uttarakhand 4.5% 4.3% 65.8% 2.2% 5.9% 10.3% 5.6% 1.3%
  3. 3. Different categories of land available for fodder cultivation Landuse Area (million ha) Area available for fodder cultivation (million ha) Remarks J&K H.P. UK Total Agriculture 0.75 0.55 0.79 2.09 0.20 Ridge top and slope of risers (10% area) Cultivable, waste, fallow 0.15 0.13 0.34 0.62 0.12 Area adjoining habit ation(20% area) Current fallow 0.08 0.06 0.07 0.21 0.06 Inclusion of fodder in cropping system (30% area) Forest 2.75 1.10 3.47 7.32 1.40 Plantation of in forest floors under community forest (20% area) Total area 3.73 1.84 4.67 10.24 1.78
  4. 4. Constraints Agro eco system constraints  Shortage of fodder  Overgrazing  Rangeland deterioration Management constraints  Suitable fodder trees  Poor management  Lack of integrated approach Social and policy constraints  Less area under cultivated fodder crops  Attitude of free availability  Community organization  Benefits of sharing Major Constraints and Potentials
  5. 5. Fodder Needs Cattle population in UK = 48.87 lakh Supply  Green fodder = 105.12 (lakh t/year)  Dry Fodder = 38.02 (lakh t/year)  Total = 143.14 (lakh t/year) Shortage  Green fodder = 92.28 lakh t/year or 46.74 percent  Dry Fodder = 16.29 lakh t/year or 29.99 percent Requirement  Green fodder = 197.40 (lakh t/year)  Dry Fodder = 54.31 (lakh t/year)  Total = 251.71 (lakh t/year)
  6. 6. Year Supply Demand Deficit as % of demand (actual demands) Green Dry Green Dry Green Dry 1995 379 421 947 526 60 (568) 20 (105) 2000 385 428 988 549 61 (604) 22 (121) 2005 390 443 1025 569 62 (635) 22 (126) 2010 395 451 1061 589 63 (666) 24 (138) 2015 401 466 1097 609 64(696) 23 (143) 2020 406 473 1134 630 64 (728) 25 (157) 2025 411 488 1170 650 65 (759) 25 (162) Source: Draft report of the working group on animal husbandry and dairying for five-year plan (2002-2007), Govt. of India, Planning Commission. Scenario of feed and fodder requirement & availability: (In million tones)
  7. 7. Constraints Agro eco system constraints  Shortage of fodder  Overgrazing  Rangeland deterioration Management constraints  Suitable fodder trees  Poor management  Lack of integrated approach Social and policy constraints  Less area under cultivated fodder crops  Attitude of free availability  Community organization  Benefits of sharing Major Constraints and Potentials
  8. 8. •Continuous grazing and over stocking •Grazing of animals in large number too early at regeneration stage •grazing till the very onset of severe winter denying the opportunity to the nutritious forage var. to flower and to produce seeds •Proliferation of weeds •Soil erosion Reasons of deterioration in the condition of bugyals
  9. 9. Constraints Agro eco system constraints  Shortage of fodder  Overgrazing  Rangeland deterioration Management constraints  Suitable fodder trees  Poor management  Lack of integrated approach Social and policy constraints  Less area under cultivated fodder crops  Attitude of free availability  Community organization  Benefits of sharing Major Constraints and Potentials
  10. 10. Potential area for fodder production  Fallow land - Grasses, Herbs, Shrubs  Forest land - Grasses, Shrubs, Leaf fodder  High altitude – Pastures, Grazing  Cultivated land - Residues, Weeds,  Terrace risers, Slopes
  11. 11. Suitable Technologies Wastelands and grasslands
  12. 12. Introduction of Improved Grasses and Legumes Treatments Fodder Yield (q/ha) 1. Pangola 272.8 2. Chrysopogon 238.3 3. Siratro pure 185.8 4. Pangola + Siratro (1:1) 357.3 5. Pangola + Siratro (1:2) 354.0 6. Chrysopogon + Siratro(1:1) 210.2 7. Chrysopogon + Siratro1:2) 234.7
  13. 13. Controlled Grazing Enclosure period Herbage production Average (q/ha) Species (No.) Open grassland 9.5 13.0 Two years’ closure 31.2 22.0 Five years’ closure 37.2 26.0 Long term cllosure 44.6 38.0
  14. 14. Fertility Management Nitrogen levels (kg/ha) Phosphorus levels (kg/ha) Mean 0 30 60 0 17.8 23.2 32.2 24.4 30 34.2 42.8 52.7 43.2 60 47.0 55.1 70.2 57.4 Mean 33.0 40.3 51.7
  15. 15. P.dialataum Paspalissum P.clandestinum C.plectortachus Digitariasp.II D.decumbanse P.coloratum One cut Two cuts 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Green forage Yield (q/ha) Cutting Management
  16. 16. Establishment of Kudzu
  17. 17. Utilization of Sloping Lands
  18. 18. Potential area for fodder production  Fallow land - Grasses, Herbs, Shrubs  Forest land - Grasses, Shrubs, Leaf fodder  High altitude - Pastures: Grazing  Cultivated land - Residues, Weeds,  Terrace risers, Slopes
  19. 19. Fodder production on forest floor Green forage yield 400-800 q/ha
  20. 20. Hy. Napier at Different Sites
  21. 21. Silvipastoral System
  22. 22. Potential area for fodder production  Fallow land - Grasses, Herbs, Shrubs  Forest land - Grasses, Shrubs, Leaf fodder  High altitude – Pastures, Grazing  Cultivated land - Residues, Weeds,  Terrace risers, Slopes
  23. 23. High altitude Pasture
  24. 24. Potential area for fodder production  Fallow land - Grasses, Herbs, Shrubs  Forest land - Grasses, Shrubs, Leaf fodder  High altitude - Pastures: Grazing  Cultivated land - Residues, Weeds,  Terrace risers, Slopes
  25. 25. . . Silvihorti System
  26. 26. Agrihorti System
  27. 27. Potential area for fodder production  Fallow land - Grasses, Herbs, Shrubs  Forest land - Grasses, Shrubs, Leaf fodder  High altitude - Pastures: Grazing  Cultivated land - Residues, Weeds,  Terrace risers, Slopes
  28. 28. Hy, Napier on Field Terrace Risers
  29. 29. Tree Plantation
  30. 30. Fodder Production Round the Year in Hills S.N. Months Fodder trees Grasses Cultivated fodder 1 Dec-Jan. Grewia optiva, Quercus leucotrichophora , Q. glauca ,Q.dilata, and Ailanthus excelsa, Perennial rye, Tall fescue, Cocksfoots, Broome and Grassland manawa Berseem, clover, Dual purpose wheat and Barley, Lucerne, Oat and Mustard 2 Feb-Mar. Ficus spp,.Bauhinia retusa Prunus padam, and Fraxinus micantha, Perinnial rye, Tall fescue, Cocksfoots, Broome and Grassland manawa Berseem, Lucerne, clover and Oat
  31. 31. Fodder Production Round the Year in Hills S.N. Months Fodder trees Grasses Cultivated fodder 3 Apr.-May Celtis austrelis, Q. leucotrichophor a, Robinia Perinnial rye, Tall fescue, Setaria Spp. and Rhodes Berseem, Lucerne, clover, and Oat 4. June-July Bauhinia spp., Albizia, Morus alba, Robinia pseudo acacia and Alnus nepalensis Hy. Napier, Setaria Spp. Rhodes, Panicum Spp, Pangola, Thysanolaena maxima, Congo signal and local Maize cowpea and Desmodium
  32. 32. S.N. Months Fodder trees Grasses Cultivated fodder 5 Aug.-Sep Bauhinia spp.,Albizia, Morus alba, Robinia pseudo acacia and Alnus nepalensis Hy. Napier, Setaria Spp., Rhodes, Panicum Spp,, Thysanolaena maxima Pangola, Congo signal and local Maize cowpea and Desmodium 6. Oct.- Nov. Bauhinia spp, Albizia, and Alnus nephalensis, Hy. Napier, Setaria spp. Rhodes, Panicum Spp, Pangola, Thysanolaena maxima , Congo signal and local Desmodium, Cowpea, Perinnial and winter grasses , Fodder Production Round the Year in Hills
  33. 33. •A rational proportion of trees/ shrubs and grasses in grazing land •Regulating grazing in pasture and grazing lands •Planting of improved grasses and leguminous fodder in the grasslands •Creation of fodder banks & Scientific processing •Changing the forest plantation policy from industrial to fodder oriented •Undertaking of special rejuvenation programme for alpine pasture •Development of suitable fodder production models as per land holding FUTURE RESEARCH NEEDS
  34. 34. •Participatory techniques to be adopted to identify the problems and to carry out the improvement programme •Tree canopy manipulation through biological means such as goat grazing, optimizing tree density and spacing in plantation •Standardization of lopping intensity, frequency and seasonality •Development of appropriate planting technology and design in line with local ecological and socio-economic conditions •Identifying /developing a diversity of tree species that can be planted by the local farmer •Development of appropriate PHT for fodder, considering local socio economic conditions

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