Quest for an appropriate
bamboo species in tropical
homegardens - Can
Dendrocalamus stocksii
(Munro) fit the bill?
S. Visw...
• Dendrocalamus stocksii – Knowing the species
• Distribution in Peninsular India
• D.stocksii – Domestication in Konkan b...
Why not bamboo?
• Cheap
• Renewable
• Fast growing
• Short rotation
• Wide adaptation
• Grows in poor soil and low
rainfal...
Number Number
Country of Genera of Species
Global 75 1250
Asia 65 900
China 26 300
Malaysia 10 44
India 23 145
Thailand 12...
• Bamboo covers 11.3 m.ha of
forest area in India
• Main concentration in NE (28%) of
total bamboo area
• Madhya Pradesh (...
Sl. No. Species Sl. No. Species
1 Bambusa bambos 10 D. hamiltonii
2 B. nutans 11 D. stocksii
3 B. pallida 12 D. strictus
4...
In Peninsular India in Central
Western Ghats
Native Species
• D.strictus
• Bambusa bambos
• Ochlandra travancorica
• O.scr...
Common homegarden spp. in
India
Spp. of North-east India
• Bambusa cachrensis
• Bambusa vulgaris
• Bambusa balcooa
• Teino...
Why these bamboo spp. do
not fit the bill
Bambusa bambos
Dendrocalamus strictus Ochlandra travancorica
Extremely manageable thornless
species with great economic and
ecological importance
Naturally distributed in Central
West...
• Endemic to Western Ghats and traditionally utilized by
bamboo dependent communities.
• Commercial plantations (block and...
Distribution of D. stocksii in
Central Western Ghats
D.stocksii in agroforestry
practices in Peninsular India
In homestead On farm boundaries
Block plantationsLive fence
D.stocksii - Intercropping
Intercropping with sweet potato
Intercropping with finger millet
Survey and Distribution of D. Stocksii genotypes
Central Western Ghats
Variation in morphological parameters
of Dendrocalamus stocksii genotypes
evaluated from Central Western Ghats:
S.
No. Par...
12 populations of
Dendrocalamus stocksii
identified along the
Central Western Ghats
(M. C. J. Bottini et al. 2000;Carlos N...
Population Latitude (N) Longitude (E) Altitude (m.asl) No. of clumps
sampled
Dapoli 17.444338 73.110834 130.47 8
Patan 17....
Culm production capacity of genotypes
in different populations of
Dendrocalamus stocksii
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
...
Population Clump
diameter
(m)
Commercial
culm height
(m)
Basal
diameter
of culms
(cm)
5th internode
diameter of
culms (cm)...
Variation in clump and culm
characteristics in D.stocksii
populations
Culm Character GV PV EV GCV PCV ECV
Heritability
(%)
Genetic
Advance
Basal diameter 51.53 81.17 29.64 16.08 20.18 12.20 63...
Utility and Value addition in Konkan
belt
> 40 mm dia
< 30 mm dia
> 50 mm dia
Different size
classes have
different utilit...
Multiple uses and Value addition in
Konkan belt
 Traditionally: harvest every year from the 4th year onwards
 Value addi...
• Juvenile shoots – edible
• Around 10-15 new shoots produced per clump every year
• >50% of extractable edible portion
Ut...
• Nutritional composition on par with other edible spp.
Utility Value as edible shoots
Name of Species Moisture % Protein
...
Utility and Value addition in Konkan belt
– Case study of Ovaliye village,
Sindhudurg Dist., Maharashtra
• Entire village ...
D.stocksii – Preservative treatment for
enhancing durability in value added
products
• Vacuum pressure treatment (1.5kgcm-...
Intricate linkage of D.stocksii with farm,
household, industry and local markets in
Central Western Ghats
• D. stocksii – a truly multi-purpose spp.
• Consistent market demand
• High adaptability in semi-arid, sub-humid and humi...
• Karnataka Forest Department for funding the
project
• Dean, College of Forestry, DBSKKV, Dapoli
• Director, IWST
Acknowl...
Thank you for your kind attention…
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Session 2.2 quest for appropriate bamboo species

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Session 2.2 quest for appropriate bamboo species

  1. 1. Quest for an appropriate bamboo species in tropical homegardens - Can Dendrocalamus stocksii (Munro) fit the bill? S. Viswanath, A. Rane1, Sowmya, C. and M.S.Rao Tree Improvement and Genetics Division, Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore, India 1 College of Forestry, Dr.B.S.Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli, India Email: sviswanath@icfre.org
  2. 2. • Dendrocalamus stocksii – Knowing the species • Distribution in Peninsular India • D.stocksii – Domestication in Konkan belt • D.stocksii - Utility and Value addition • D.stocksii – Integration in Homegardens • Problems and prospects • Conclusion Outline of Talk
  3. 3. Why not bamboo? • Cheap • Renewable • Fast growing • Short rotation • Wide adaptation • Grows in poor soil and low rainfall • Multifarious uses • C sequestration potential • Rehabilitation of degraded land • High social, economic & environmental values • Create local employment opportunities • Substitute of traditional timber wood in many ways • Requires less energy for processing
  4. 4. Number Number Country of Genera of Species Global 75 1250 Asia 65 900 China 26 300 Malaysia 10 44 India 23 145 Thailand 12 41 Vietnam 16 92 Indonesia - 65 Nepal 11 53 Bangladesh 8 20 Srilanka 1 7 Source: INBAR, 2005 Bio-resource of bamboo (selected countries)
  5. 5. • Bamboo covers 11.3 m.ha of forest area in India • Main concentration in NE (28%) of total bamboo area • Madhya Pradesh (20%) and Chattisgarh (12%) • Highest productivity recorded in Assam (5 MT/ha/yr) • India with China & Myanmar – 75% of World’s bamboo resources • Only 13.5 m. MT (17%) harvested annually Distribution and productivity in India • Dendrocalamus strictus • Bambusa bambos • Melocanna baccifera • B.balcooa • B.tulda • B.nutans • D.stocksii • Ochlandra travancorica Source: Lobovikov et al., 2005; Rai & Chauhan, 1998
  6. 6. Sl. No. Species Sl. No. Species 1 Bambusa bambos 10 D. hamiltonii 2 B. nutans 11 D. stocksii 3 B. pallida 12 D. strictus 4 B. polymorpha 13 D. asper 5 B. tulda 14 Guadua angustifolia 6 B. vulgaris 15 Meloconna baccifera 7 B. balcooa 16 Ochlandra travancorica 8 Dendrocalamus brandisii 17 Schizostachym dullooa 9 D. giganteus 18 Phyllostachys bambusoides Economically important bamboo species in India (NMBA)
  7. 7. In Peninsular India in Central Western Ghats Native Species • D.strictus • Bambusa bambos • Ochlandra travancorica • O.scriptoria • D.stocksii • D.brandisii • D.giganteus • B.vulgaris • B.wamin • B.multiplex Introduced Species • T.oliveri • G.angustifolia • D.asper • B.balcooa • B.tulda • B.nutans • B.textilis • B.polymorpha • B.membraneas • D.hamiltonii • B.pallida
  8. 8. Common homegarden spp. in India Spp. of North-east India • Bambusa cachrensis • Bambusa vulgaris • Bambusa balcooa • Teinostachyum dullooa • Melocanna baccifera • Bambusa nutans Spp. of Peninsular India • Bambusa bambos (Kerala) • Ochlandra travancorica (Kerala) • Dendrocalamus brandisii (Karnataka) • Dendrocalamus stocksii (Konkan belt)
  9. 9. Why these bamboo spp. do not fit the bill Bambusa bambos Dendrocalamus strictus Ochlandra travancorica
  10. 10. Extremely manageable thornless species with great economic and ecological importance Naturally distributed in Central Western Ghats from Kasargod (Kerala) to Ratnagiri (Maharashtra) Most preferred by farmers in Southern India
  11. 11. • Endemic to Western Ghats and traditionally utilized by bamboo dependent communities. • Commercial plantations (block and mixed) of this species are present and each 20 feet culm is sold for Rs. 50/- to 200/-. • Used in agricultural tools, farm structures, handicrafts, construction, furniture etc. • Early maturity, non-predominant node and easy working has made it the most popular industrial species. Why Dendrocalamus stocksii ?
  12. 12. Distribution of D. stocksii in Central Western Ghats
  13. 13. D.stocksii in agroforestry practices in Peninsular India In homestead On farm boundaries Block plantationsLive fence
  14. 14. D.stocksii - Intercropping Intercropping with sweet potato Intercropping with finger millet
  15. 15. Survey and Distribution of D. Stocksii genotypes Central Western Ghats
  16. 16. Variation in morphological parameters of Dendrocalamus stocksii genotypes evaluated from Central Western Ghats: S. No. Parameter Maximum Minimum Mean 1 Clump diameter (m) 6.75 0.23 2.59 2 Clump height (m) 15.00 5.0 9.77 3 Total number of standing culms per clump 139 10 54.60 4 Number of stumps per clump 150 00 24.85 5 Number of Current year culms per clump 38 3 15.93 6 Culm basal diameter (mm) 70.06 9.00 44.85 7 Culm 5th internode diameter (mm) 57.32 6.75 37.38 8 Culm 5th internode length (cm) 52.00 9.00 44.85 9 Culm wall thickness to culm diameter ratio 1.00 0.10 0.33 10 Culm height (m) 16.2 0.23 7.75 11 Commercial culm height (m) 13.0 2.90 7.75 12 Height of Solidness (m) 12.5 0.10 3.34
  17. 17. 12 populations of Dendrocalamus stocksii identified along the Central Western Ghats (M. C. J. Bottini et al. 2000;Carlos Navarro &Gustavo Hernández, 2004)
  18. 18. Population Latitude (N) Longitude (E) Altitude (m.asl) No. of clumps sampled Dapoli 17.444338 73.110834 130.47 8 Patan 17.175870 73.492500 536.70 3 Ratnagiri 16.461830 73.245540 139.69 8 Sindhudurg 16.013478 73.521820 114.43 17 Kolhapur 15.510400 74.090800 762.61 9 North Goa 15.381850 74.023920 90.84 10 South Goa 15.230990 74.030200 80.17 4 Belgaum 15.443740 74.304050 738.86 8 Karwar 14.485160 74.272150 556.76 6 Sirsi 14.195870 74.512580 582.24 12 Udupi 13.154830 74.533230 88.92 7 Kasargod 12.295700 75.002620 113.97 10 Populations of D. stocksii identified in Central Western Ghats
  19. 19. Culm production capacity of genotypes in different populations of Dendrocalamus stocksii 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Number of standing culms per clump current year culms per clump Number of harvested culms per clump Total number of culms per clump 12 Populations Numberofculmsclump-1 No of culms emerging annually varied from 11 to 19 across populations
  20. 20. Population Clump diameter (m) Commercial culm height (m) Basal diameter of culms (cm) 5th internode diameter of culms (cm) 5th internode length of the culms (cm) Culm wall thickness to diameter ratio Height of culm solidness (m) Dapoli 2.58 8.61abc 4.55bcd 3.75bdcef 29.67fg 0.31abcde 0.85d Patan 2.93 7.61bc 4.21def 3.42ef 35.10bc 0.57a 4.57abc Ratnagiri 2.28 9.77abc 4.79ab 3.93abc 31.95def 0.32bcde 1.90bcd Sindhudurg 2.40 8.78ab 4.63abc 3.88abcd 32.33cdef 0.33cde 5.14ab Kolhapur 3.20 6.67c 4.43bcd 3.64cdef 28.20g 0.37cde 2.93bcd North Goa 3.01 8.27bc 4.47bcd 3.88abcde 34.08bcd 0.29abc 1.63bcd South Goa 2.94 8.67abc 4.47bcd 3.68bcdef 31.13ef 0.31abcde 2.25bcd Belgaum 2.16 6.58c 4.33bcd 3.49ef 36.09bcde 0.48ab 7.01a Karwar 2.23 9.58ab 4.90a 4.01ab 40.36a 0.27de 1.03cd Sirsi 2.72 8.48abc 4.94a 4.07abcd 40.32a 0.35abcd 2.91bcd Udupi 2.09 8.07abc 4.89a 4.41a 31.84edf 0.28abcd 0.23d Kasargod 2.59 8.25abc 4.56bcd 3.85edf 33.71bced 0.27ab 1.14cd SE ± 0.772 0.16 0.12 0.93 0.01 1.12 CD 5% N. S. 1.943 0.314 0.29 2.32 0.02 2.90 Trait means not followed by the same superscript are significantly different at p=0.05 Morphological parameters of D.stocksii genotypes
  21. 21. Variation in clump and culm characteristics in D.stocksii populations
  22. 22. Culm Character GV PV EV GCV PCV ECV Heritability (%) Genetic Advance Basal diameter 51.53 81.17 29.64 16.08 20.18 12.20 63.48 11.78 5th internode diameter 35.91 63.17 27.26 16.11 21.36 14.04 56.84 9.30 5th internode length 36.03 55.98 19.95 19.95 22.47 13.42 64.36 9.91 GV: Genetic variance; PV: Phenotypic variance; EV: Error of Variance; GCV: Genetic coefficient of Variance; PCV: Phenotypic coefficient of Variance; ECV: Error coefficient of Variance Genetic estimates of culm characters of D. stocksii genotypes evaluated along the Central Western Ghats
  23. 23. Utility and Value addition in Konkan belt > 40 mm dia < 30 mm dia > 50 mm dia Different size classes have different utility value
  24. 24. Multiple uses and Value addition in Konkan belt  Traditionally: harvest every year from the 4th year onwards  Value addition: substitute to cane in furniture
  25. 25. • Juvenile shoots – edible • Around 10-15 new shoots produced per clump every year • >50% of extractable edible portion Utility Value as edible shoots D.stocksii A B C D E F A B C D E F A: B.balcooa; B: D.asper; C: D.stocksii; D: B.bambos; E: G.angustifolia; F: D.strictus
  26. 26. • Nutritional composition on par with other edible spp. Utility Value as edible shoots Name of Species Moisture % Protein g/100g of fresh wt Carbohydrat es g/100g of fresh wt Fat g/100g of fresh wt Crude fibre g/100g of fresh wt Ash % Bambusa bambos 90.8±0.00 3.80±0.03 3.95±0.05 0.14±0.003 0.83±0.003 0.93±0.11 Bambusa balcooa 89.4±0.51 3.76±0.02 2.39±0.03 0.05±0.002 0.81±0.010 1.1±0.11 Guadua angustifolia 90.8±0.20 3.16±0.04 2.17±0.34 0.35±0.058 0.76±0.010 1.1±0.42 Dendrocalamus strictus 91.8±0.20 3.17±0.04 5.53±0.05 0.23±0.003 0.78±0.015 0.9±0.23 Dendrocalamus asper 91.8±1.04 2.71±0.04 5.17±0.05 0.10±0.003 0.71±0.014 0.47±0.23 Dendrocalamus stocksii 93.1±2.61 2.87±0.35 5.87±0.02 0.01±0.002 0.76±0.011 1.27±0.30
  27. 27. Utility and Value addition in Konkan belt – Case study of Ovaliye village, Sindhudurg Dist., Maharashtra • Entire village (160 households) engaged in D.stocksii cultivation • 200 truck loads marketed annually
  28. 28. D.stocksii – Preservative treatment for enhancing durability in value added products • Vacuum pressure treatment (1.5kgcm-2) using CCB preservative for one hour
  29. 29. Intricate linkage of D.stocksii with farm, household, industry and local markets in Central Western Ghats
  30. 30. • D. stocksii – a truly multi-purpose spp. • Consistent market demand • High adaptability in semi-arid, sub-humid and humid tropical conditions - Greater chances of popularization • Multilocational trials in different agroclimatic zones • Improvement work can focus on selecting genotypes having value addition potential • D.stocksii undoubtedly has an important socio-cultural and economic role on par with recognized commercial horticulture crops like coconut or mango Has the Quest for an appropriate bamboo spp. ended with D.stocksii ?
  31. 31. • Karnataka Forest Department for funding the project • Dean, College of Forestry, DBSKKV, Dapoli • Director, IWST Acknowledgement
  32. 32. Thank you for your kind attention…

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