Total 206 plant species
Fruit, medicinal plants,
fuelwood, spices etc.
Tree Shrubs Herb Climber
Mode of regeneration
Cultivated + natural regeneration
81 72 53
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800
Tree: Sobs (Mao Tau) Shrub: Sobs (Mao Tau)
Herb: Sobs (Mao Tau) Climber: Sobs (Mao Tau)
Sample based species accumulation or rarefaction curves (Sobs) for the
different components of the overall plant species assemblage’s verses
abundance in homegardens vegetation.
of diversity (1-λ)
Tree 3.82 0.04 0.96 0.85
Shrub 3.32 0.05 0.95 0.85
Herb 3.48 0.04 0.96 0.92
Climber 3.00 0.06 0.94 0.92
Overall 4.76 0.02 0.98 0.82
Cocos nucifera, Dendrocalamus strictus, Mangifera indica,
Psidium guajava, Areca catechu, Anacardium occidentale,
Artocarpus heterophyllus, Jatropha curcas, Musa paradisiaca,
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Gliricidia sepium, Colocasia esculenta,
Hemidesmus indicus, Trichosanthes cucumerina, Piper longum,
Piper nigrum and Garcinia indica, Murraya koenigii, Tectona
grandis, Moringa oleifera and Manilkara zapota.
Bird study results
76 bird species
Dry season (62) and monsoon season (59).
There are seven bird species only occurred in Monsoon season which
never recorded in dry season (SEASONAL MIGRATORY).
jungle Crow, baya Weaver, brahminy Kite, red wattled, spotted Dove, Indian
Myna, rose ringed-parakeet, red whiskered Bulbul, red vented Bulbul, Indian
pied Hornbill, large gray Babbler, black Drongo, small Bee-eater, jungle bush
Quail, black shouldered Kite, Indian house Crow, cattle Egret etc.
Malabar Trogon, spotted Owlet, Indian Peafowl, Hoopoe, white breasted
Waterhen, black Bulbul, Indian pied Wagtail, red Munia, yellow fronted
Barbet, purple Sunbird, painted Spourfowl, tickells blue Flycatcher, white
spotted fantail Flycatcher, Eurasian blackbird, common Kestrel, rosy Starling,
night Heron, Indian Pitta are rare bird species
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Dry season: Sobs Mao Tau
Monsoon season: Sobs Mao Tau
Abundance 452 567
Bird density ha-1 35.7 42.5
radius for point
Encounter rate 4.6 5
Simpsons index of
Simpsons index of
Predicted sample based Rarefaction curves
(EstimateS 8.2.0 version) showing bird
species richness verses abundance for
homegardens, in the dry season. Solid lines
represent species richness in the dry season
and dotted lines represents species richness
values in the monsoon season
Baya WeaverIndian Myna
Indian House Crow
The higher number of rare species in the study area is important for
conservation point of view.
It is concluded that the bird analysis study site exhibits diverse homegarden
habitat and is rich in bird species. The wide variety of the bird species like
hornbills, woodpeckers, warblers, drongos, flycatchers, kingfishers, starlings,
crows and kites indicates richness and diversity of the bird species in the study
Our study highlights the importance of conducting and documenting bird
diversity at different land-use type. It is important to carry out repeated
inventories of the Konkan coast in order to track regional and global changes in
population of bird species.
The study demonstrates rich floral and avifaunal diversity of homegardens.
Therefore, the priority should be given to the region for conservation and
sustainable management of floral biodiversity of homegardens, which is facing
pressure from increasing population, land-use changes, deforestation and
The variation in species richness, dominance and diversity for homegardens
vegetation components indicate dynamic nature.
Although ornithological knowledge of the Western Ghats is significant,
understanding the avifaunal diversity is still important for conservation
planning and restoring ecosystems in long term management. We therefore
suggest further systematic and long term avian survey to document changes in
overall species richness and diversity in Konkan coast of Western Ghats.
Being an ecological indicators as well as aesthetic reasons it is important to
understand how birds are affected by human induced land-use changes.
Therefore, it will help for better conservation planning of avifauna of the study
area in the future.
The outcomes of our study will provide baseline data for monitoring and
conserving the vegetation and avifaunal diversity of tropical homegardens
vegetation and other land-use types.
The present study conclude that land clearing, land breaking and nuclear power
project installation will affect the biodiversity and carbon balance. Therefore,
the study suggests that it should not be started at Jaitapur for future
environmental health, safety, public health, security and to avoid future
hazards of loss of biodiversity.