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COP	21,	Paris	
11th	December	2015	
Florence	Bernard	
Associate	Scien5st,	ASB	Partnership	for	the	
Tropical	Forest	Margins,...
•  DRC:	Increases	in	deforesta5on	from	11%	between	1990-2000	to	22%	
between	2000-2005	(Ernest	et	al.	2013)	
•  Sixth	for	...
•  Agroforestry:	one	of	the	30	principle	themes	iden5fied	in	the	Na5onal	
Framework	REDD+	Strategy;	agroforestry	was	among	...
Agroforestry	Scenarios tCO2e	yr-1 t	charcoal	yr-1
A8	x	Cas 1,108 134,842
A8	x	Cas	x	Mz	x	Saf	x	H 2,292 120,819
A8	x	Cas	x	...
tCO2eSequesteredOver30Years
05001000150020002500
Agroforestry Scenarios (5 ha)
1108 (37)
2292 (76)
1457 (49)
262 (9)
1532 ...
Agroforestry	Scenarios Average	 income	
yr-1	ha-1	
30	 year	 NPV	
ha-1	(12%)
A8	x	Cas 128 1,086
A8	x	Cas	x	Mz	x	Saf	x	H 2,...
IncomeinUSD(1000's)Over30Years
Agroforestry Scenarios (5 ha)
0255075100125150375400
8231 (274)
25110 (837)
19168 (639)
389...
Opportuni>es	and	barriers	for	the	integra>on	of	AF	systems	within	in	
a	REDD+	framework	in	the	Kinshasa	woodfuel	supply	ba...
Florence	Bernard	
Associate	Scien5st,	ICRAF	
f.bernard@cgiar.org		
Research	study	conducted	by:	Olivia	Freeman,	Peter	A.	M...
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REDD+ and agroforestry potential in the Democratic Republic of Congo

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Presentation by Florence Bernard at ICRAF side event on REDD+ and agroforestry at the UN climate talks (Paris COP21)

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REDD+ and agroforestry potential in the Democratic Republic of Congo

  1. 1. COP 21, Paris 11th December 2015 Florence Bernard Associate Scien5st, ASB Partnership for the Tropical Forest Margins, ICRAF f.bernard@cgiar.org
  2. 2. •  DRC: Increases in deforesta5on from 11% between 1990-2000 to 22% between 2000-2005 (Ernest et al. 2013) •  Sixth for countries with the greatest annual tree cover loss between 2001-2013 Deforesta>on and Forest Degrada>on in the Kinshasa Woodfuel Supply Basin •  About 933,935 hectares, “hotspot” of deforesta5on •  Woodfuel is the main energy source for 87% of households and numerous businesses. The Kinshasa basin supplies 77% of the city’s woodfuel demand •  Main DD: slash-and-burn agriculture and woodfuel produc5on for charcoal and firewood •  In 2010, total woodfuel demand = 4.8 million m3 with only 2-3% being harvested sustainably (Schure et al. 2014). Kinshasa Woodfuel Supply Basin:
  3. 3. •  Agroforestry: one of the 30 principle themes iden5fied in the Na5onal Framework REDD+ Strategy; agroforestry was among the top 4 most commonly cited themes included in 9 out of the 12 REDD+ projects and ini5a5ves included in the DRC Na5onal Forest Monitoring System inventory •  Poten>al of six smallholder Acacia-cassava-based AF systems to sequester carbon, generate income and produce energy in the Kinshasa woodfuel supply basin and comparison with two baseline scenarios over a 30-year period. Agroforestry : one prac>ce iden>fied by DRC to address these DD, mi>gate CC and improve livelihoods through REDD+ Species/ac>vity Role in system Acacia (A) Acacia auriculiformis Carbon; Charcoal (A8); N-fixing (A2) Limba (L) Terminalia superba Carbon; Timber Safou (Saf) Dacryodes edulis Carbon; Fruit Cassava (Cas) Manihot esculenta Food crop Maize (Mz) Zea mays Food crop Sorgum (Sor) Sorghum bicolor Food crop Bee keeping (H) Honey Agroforestry Scenarios A8 x Cas A8 x Cas x Mz x Saf x H A8 x Cas x Sor x L A2 x Cas A2 x Cas x Saf x H A2 x Cas x Mz x L Baselines Cas Cas x Mz
  4. 4. Agroforestry Scenarios tCO2e yr-1 t charcoal yr-1 A8 x Cas 1,108 134,842 A8 x Cas x Mz x Saf x H 2,292 120,819 A8 x Cas x Sor x L 1,457 120,819 A2 x Cas 262 170,018 A2 x Cas x Saf x H 1,532 150,976 A2 x Cas x Mz x L 996 150,976 Baselines Cas N/A N/A Cas x Mz N/A N/A •  A8 systems can sequester the most carbon compared to A2 systems •  If these AF A8 systems were adopted in the current fallow plots of the Kinshasa woodfuel supply basin, 11 to 99 million tons carbon dioxide equivalent over 30 years could be sequestered . This would also generate between 7-9% of the woodfuel supplied within the supply basin area. •  A2 systems technically can produce more charcoal than A8 systems, but it is not profitable due to the shorter growing period in A2 systems. Growing Acacia on longer growing cycles (A8 systems) enable to produce charcoal profitably Contribu>ons to carbon sequestra>on (tCO2e) and woodfuel produc>on (t charcoal) (In average amounts per year over the 30-year period)
  5. 5. tCO2eSequesteredOver30Years 05001000150020002500 Agroforestry Scenarios (5 ha) 1108 (37) 2292 (76) 1457 (49) 262 (9) 1532 (51) 996 (33) A8 x Cas A8 x Cas x Saf A8 x Cas x L A2 x Cas A2 x Cas x Saf A2 x Cas x L Carbon sequestered over 30 years in a 5 ha area based upon the different scenarios
  6. 6. Agroforestry Scenarios Average income yr-1 ha-1 30 year NPV ha-1 (12%) A8 x Cas 128 1,086 A8 x Cas x Mz x Saf x H 2,599 12,754 A8 x Cas x Sor x L 237 1,590 A2 x Cas 263 2,076 A2 x Cas x Saf x H 2,583 12,813 A2 x Cas x Mz x L 929 7,103 Baselines Cas 549 3,882 Cas x Mz 1,674 12,946 •  A8 systems not always as economically compe55ve compared to A2 and baselines •  A2 x Cas and A8 x Cas, generate the least amount of income. •  All scenarios result in a posi5ve NPV: Maize creates large short term gains, followed by Safou-based scenarios Average income per year and 30-year NPV values with discount rates of 12%
  7. 7. IncomeinUSD(1000's)Over30Years Agroforestry Scenarios (5 ha) 0255075100125150375400 8231 (274) 25110 (837) 19168 (639) 389921 (12997) 35580 (1186) 39480 (1316) 387482 (12916) 139294 (4643) Cas Cas x Mz A8 x Cas A8 x Cas x Mz x Saf x H A8 x Cas x Sor x L A2 x Cas A2 x Cas x Saf x H A2 x Cas x Mz x L Income Activity Charcoal Carbon 5−MRV Cassava Maize Sorgum Honey Limba Safou •  Sale of safou fruit generates by far the largest profits; Honey and intercrops (maize and sorgum) provide significant contribu5ons but on a much lower scale; Limba, charcoal and the sale of C credits are more limited in their contribu5ons •  Diversifica5on of ac5vi5es is key to increase income in A8 systems and provide incen5ves to produce sustainably sourced charcoal Poten>al cumula>ve income for each different scenario over the 30- year period broken down by income-genera>ng ac>vity in USD
  8. 8. Opportuni>es and barriers for the integra>on of AF systems within in a REDD+ framework in the Kinshasa woodfuel supply basin •  Poten>al barriers for adop>on: upfront costs, REDD+ projects not favorable for small-scale famer ac5vi5es, insecure or unclear land tenure •  REDD+ as an enabling framework for the adop>on of AF: providing financial, poli5cal and technical support, but carbon finance alone not enough •  Incen>vizing smallholder adop>on of AF: coopera5ves / contract farming, strengthening land tenure or land use rights, developing supply chains, increasing access to the market, providing extension services and increasing access to finance •  Diversified AF systems can address all REDD+ objec>ves such as CC mi>ga>on, poverty reduc>on and reduced deforesta>on if designed appropriately •  From a technical standpoint, agroforestry systems can be included under a REDD+ framework in the DRC.
  9. 9. Florence Bernard Associate Scien5st, ICRAF f.bernard@cgiar.org Research study conducted by: Olivia Freeman, Peter A. Minang, Claude Akalakou Mayimba, Apollinaire Biloso

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