Spatial dimensions of ecosystem servicesEcosystem services often involve stocks and flows of materialor individuals across landscapes:water, soil, carbon, organismsGeneration ReceptionHaines-Young, 2009Haines-Young, R. and Potschin, M., (2009). The links between biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being.
Mapping requirements for assessing ecosystem servicerequirements (Pagella and Sinclair, in review. Landscape Ecology)
50% of studies in lasttwo yearsNational scaleLandscape scaleover 1000 km2 but sub-nationalLocal scale.immediate landscape scales (10-1000km2)Snapshots rather thanchanges to ecosystemservice provision?Little evidence ofparticipatory mapdevelopmentWhat methodologies are available now?FlowPathways?
Fitness of mapping tools for managingecosystem service provision• Large scale, coarse resolution– Can’t link field and farm decisions to ES• Few ecosystem services mapped, little explicittreatment of interactions amongst them• Arbitrary geographical boundaries that focus ongeneration– Ignore reception– Different ES may need different boundaries• Stakeholders rarely participating in map generation– ES providers– Intermediaries– ES receivers
Polyscape - a multiple criteria GIS toolbox• Designed as a negotiation tool not as a prescriptivemodel• Works at local scales with resolution appropriate forfield decisions considering small (10 km2) to medium(1000 km2) landscape contexts• Embraces the reality of ‘data sparse’environments, using national scale digitalelevation, land use/cover and soil data in the firstinstance
Sources of dataData set Type Resolution NotesCCW 1980s Phase 1 Land use 10m2Data drawn fromfield survey 1980sCCW 2009Phase 1Land use 5m2Remote sensed data2009.NSRI Soilscapes Soil 1 km2 Farewell et al., 2011OS Land PROFILE DTM 10m2EA Flood risk Flood risk Im2-10m2Uses DTM andLIDARCore and FocalHabitat NetworkHabitatnetwork20m2 Watts et al., 2008
What single layer colours mean?Areas with priority formaintaining current land useAreas with moderate orunknown potential for land usechangeAreas with high priority for landuse changeHighModerateModerateHigh
Farm productivity layer (Pontbren)• The base layer (represents farmer’s livelihood)• Difficult to represent all decisions(idiosyncratic behaviour)• Inputs are digital elevation, soil type, andcritical slope values• The algorithm categorises land valueaccording to its degree ofwaterlogging, fertility and slope
Farm productivity layer – Marginal land identified in green – make interventions onwet and sloping areas not flat and dry (red); much of the catchment negotiable (orange).
Water regulation map for PontbrenOpportunities for tree planting because high flow (grassland with > 500 m2 contribution, green);Moderate Flow 100 – 500 m2; negligible flow, with <100 m2 contribution (orange); already hastrees or other flow sinks (red).
Combining layers in Polyscape-2 -1 0 1 2-12+= 1Layer ALayer BCombined layerNumerical score allocated to each zoneAdditive approach taken to combining layersExampleTrade-off layer
Combining layers in Polyscape-12+= -1Layer ALayer BCombined layer1. A ‘Conservative’ approach:-12+= 2Layer ALayer BCombined layer2. A ‘Opportunistic’ approach:What trade-off layer colours mean?
Using Google Earth to display Polyscape layers
JelduLand use data does notcapture current tree coverGoogle Earth
Old forested area onsteep slopesconverted to fields –High erosionRiparian planting highvalue for timber25-40% of the tree material leaves the system for sale as fuel or fibreEucalyptus planted nearroad infrastructureNo cultural services initially
FlatPlateauSteep valley sidesRoad to GojoPathwaysRiver system
Road to GojoOriginally forested, now rapidlydegrading wheat fields (high erosion)Mosaic of Eucalyptus (especially near roads andrivers), wheat (poorer farmers) and Potato(wealthier farmers)
Road to GojoTrade offsNeutralTrade offMinor Trade offOpportunity for change
Scaling UpSystem boundaries vary with ecosystem service
Potato farmer removingeucalyptusRemnant tree coverReduced base flows in streams withEucalyptus riparian areas
Key points• The mapped output needed to integrate acrossscales from field to ‘landscape’.• The output needed to be spatially explicit• Multiple services need to be mapped together• To be useful in any landscape the tool must be ableto utilise generally available data in the first instance.• Integrate scientific evidence with local knowledge.• The output should support the implementation ofpolicy at landscape scales.