PolyscapeTim Pagella, Fergus Sinclair, EricOpiya
Spatial dimensions of ecosystem servicesEcosystem services often involve stocks and flows of materialor individuals across...
Mapping requirements for assessing ecosystem servicerequirements (Pagella and Sinclair, in review. Landscape Ecology)
50% of studies in lasttwo yearsNational scaleLandscape scaleover 1000 km2 but sub-nationalLocal scale.immediate landscape ...
Fitness of mapping tools for managingecosystem service provision• Large scale, coarse resolution– Can’t link field and far...
Boundaries
Polyscape - a multiple criteria GIS toolbox• Designed as a negotiation tool not as a prescriptivemodel• Works at local sca...
Participation and Knowledge Exchange
Sources of dataData set Type Resolution NotesCCW 1980s Phase 1 Land use 10m2Data drawn fromfield survey 1980sCCW 2009Phase...
What single layer colours mean?Areas with priority formaintaining current land useAreas with moderate orunknown potential ...
Farm productivity layer (Pontbren)• The base layer (represents farmer’s livelihood)• Difficult to represent all decisions(...
Farm productivity layer – Marginal land identified in green – make interventions onwet and sloping areas not flat and dry ...
Woodland habitat connectivity at PontbrenPlant trees to enlarge existing woodland networks (green); not where thereare tre...
Water regulation map for PontbrenOpportunities for tree planting because high flow (grassland with > 500 m2 contribution, ...
Combining layers in Polyscape-2 -1 0 1 2-12+= 1Layer ALayer BCombined layerNumerical score allocated to each zoneAdditive ...
Combining layers in Polyscape-12+= -1Layer ALayer BCombined layer1. A ‘Conservative’ approach:-12+= 2Layer ALayer BCombine...
Agriculture Surface runoff Habitat connectivityTrade off mapsPontbren (1000 ha)Trade offs - Pontbren
Basic soil fertilitymap – based onNSRI SoilscapedataThe Elwy Catchment - 230 km2Issues with water quality/ sediment loads
Agricultural impact – farmers bravadoSlope threshold 15o
Agricultural impact – farmer reality?Slope threshold 12o
Potential utilisation of marginal land?Marginal landnot agriculture8%Woodland48%Marginal landin agriculture44%MeirchionMar...
Based on 10m2 DTMand 1980s land usedata.Red areas indicatesinks(woodland, wetlandor depressions)light green indicateshigh ...
Agri-environment schemes - Elwy
Using Google Earth to display Polyscape layers
JelduLand use data does notcapture current tree coverGoogle Earth
Old forested area onsteep slopesconverted to fields –High erosionRiparian planting highvalue for timber25-40% of the tree ...
FlatPlateauSteep valley sidesRoad to GojoPathwaysRiver system
Road to GojoOriginally forested, now rapidlydegrading wheat fields (high erosion)Mosaic of Eucalyptus (especially near roa...
Road to GojoAgriculture
Road to GojoTimber
Road to GojoWater
Road to GojoTrade offsNeutralTrade offMinor Trade offOpportunity for change
Scaling UpSystem boundaries vary with ecosystem service
Potato farmer removingeucalyptusRemnant tree coverReduced base flows in streams withEucalyptus riparian areas
Key points• The mapped output needed to integrate acrossscales from field to ‘landscape’.• The output needed to be spatial...
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Polyscape: a negotiation support toolkit for management of ecosystem services that connects farmers to landscapes

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Polyscape: a negotiation support toolkit for management of ecosystem services that connects farmers to landscapes

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Polyscape: a negotiation support toolkit for management of ecosystem services that connects farmers to landscapes

  1. 1. PolyscapeTim Pagella, Fergus Sinclair, EricOpiya
  2. 2. Spatial dimensions of ecosystem servicesEcosystem services often involve stocks and flows of materialor individuals across landscapes:water, soil, carbon, organismsGeneration ReceptionHaines-Young, 2009Haines-Young, R. and Potschin, M., (2009). The links between biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being.
  3. 3. Mapping requirements for assessing ecosystem servicerequirements (Pagella and Sinclair, in review. Landscape Ecology)
  4. 4. 50% of studies in lasttwo yearsNational scaleLandscape scaleover 1000 km2 but sub-nationalLocal scale.immediate landscape scales (10-1000km2)Snapshots rather thanchanges to ecosystemservice provision?Little evidence ofparticipatory mapdevelopmentWhat methodologies are available now?FlowPathways?
  5. 5. Fitness of mapping tools for managingecosystem service provision• Large scale, coarse resolution– Can’t link field and farm decisions to ES• Few ecosystem services mapped, little explicittreatment of interactions amongst them• Arbitrary geographical boundaries that focus ongeneration– Ignore reception– Different ES may need different boundaries• Stakeholders rarely participating in map generation– ES providers– Intermediaries– ES receivers
  6. 6. Boundaries
  7. 7. Polyscape - a multiple criteria GIS toolbox• Designed as a negotiation tool not as a prescriptivemodel• Works at local scales with resolution appropriate forfield decisions considering small (10 km2) to medium(1000 km2) landscape contexts• Embraces the reality of ‘data sparse’environments, using national scale digitalelevation, land use/cover and soil data in the firstinstance
  8. 8. Participation and Knowledge Exchange
  9. 9. Sources of dataData set Type Resolution NotesCCW 1980s Phase 1 Land use 10m2Data drawn fromfield survey 1980sCCW 2009Phase 1Land use 5m2Remote sensed data2009.NSRI Soilscapes Soil 1 km2 Farewell et al., 2011OS Land PROFILE DTM 10m2EA Flood risk Flood risk Im2-10m2Uses DTM andLIDARCore and FocalHabitat NetworkHabitatnetwork20m2 Watts et al., 2008
  10. 10. What single layer colours mean?Areas with priority formaintaining current land useAreas with moderate orunknown potential for land usechangeAreas with high priority for landuse changeHighModerateModerateHigh
  11. 11. Farm productivity layer (Pontbren)• The base layer (represents farmer’s livelihood)• Difficult to represent all decisions(idiosyncratic behaviour)• Inputs are digital elevation, soil type, andcritical slope values• The algorithm categorises land valueaccording to its degree ofwaterlogging, fertility and slope
  12. 12. Farm productivity layer – Marginal land identified in green – make interventions onwet and sloping areas not flat and dry (red); much of the catchment negotiable (orange).
  13. 13. Woodland habitat connectivity at PontbrenPlant trees to enlarge existing woodland networks (green); not where thereare trees or other key habitats already (red); large area where farmers maywish to plant trees that have low habitat value (orange)© CCW
  14. 14. Water regulation map for PontbrenOpportunities for tree planting because high flow (grassland with > 500 m2 contribution, green);Moderate Flow 100 – 500 m2; negligible flow, with <100 m2 contribution (orange); already hastrees or other flow sinks (red).
  15. 15. Combining layers in Polyscape-2 -1 0 1 2-12+= 1Layer ALayer BCombined layerNumerical score allocated to each zoneAdditive approach taken to combining layersExampleTrade-off layer
  16. 16. Combining layers in Polyscape-12+= -1Layer ALayer BCombined layer1. A ‘Conservative’ approach:-12+= 2Layer ALayer BCombined layer2. A ‘Opportunistic’ approach:What trade-off layer colours mean?
  17. 17. Agriculture Surface runoff Habitat connectivityTrade off mapsPontbren (1000 ha)Trade offs - Pontbren
  18. 18. Basic soil fertilitymap – based onNSRI SoilscapedataThe Elwy Catchment - 230 km2Issues with water quality/ sediment loads
  19. 19. Agricultural impact – farmers bravadoSlope threshold 15o
  20. 20. Agricultural impact – farmer reality?Slope threshold 12o
  21. 21. Potential utilisation of marginal land?Marginal landnot agriculture8%Woodland48%Marginal landin agriculture44%MeirchionMarginal landnot agriculture22%Woodland16%Marginal land inagriculture62%Gallen
  22. 22. Based on 10m2 DTMand 1980s land usedata.Red areas indicatesinks(woodland, wetlandor depressions)light green indicateshigh flow areasWater regulation - Elwy
  23. 23. Agri-environment schemes - Elwy
  24. 24. Using Google Earth to display Polyscape layers
  25. 25. JelduLand use data does notcapture current tree coverGoogle Earth
  26. 26. Old forested area onsteep slopesconverted to fields –High erosionRiparian planting highvalue for timber25-40% of the tree material leaves the system for sale as fuel or fibreEucalyptus planted nearroad infrastructureNo cultural services initially
  27. 27. FlatPlateauSteep valley sidesRoad to GojoPathwaysRiver system
  28. 28. Road to GojoOriginally forested, now rapidlydegrading wheat fields (high erosion)Mosaic of Eucalyptus (especially near roads andrivers), wheat (poorer farmers) and Potato(wealthier farmers)
  29. 29. Road to GojoAgriculture
  30. 30. Road to GojoTimber
  31. 31. Road to GojoWater
  32. 32. Road to GojoTrade offsNeutralTrade offMinor Trade offOpportunity for change
  33. 33. Scaling UpSystem boundaries vary with ecosystem service
  34. 34. Potato farmer removingeucalyptusRemnant tree coverReduced base flows in streams withEucalyptus riparian areas
  35. 35. Key points• The mapped output needed to integrate acrossscales from field to ‘landscape’.• The output needed to be spatially explicit• Multiple services need to be mapped together• To be useful in any landscape the tool must be ableto utilise generally available data in the first instance.• Integrate scientific evidence with local knowledge.• The output should support the implementation ofpolicy at landscape scales.

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