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Session 5.6 Migrants, land markets & agroforestry: turning the tide with village forest development in Jambi, Indonesia

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Gamma Galudra, Meine van Noordwijk, Putra Agung, Suyanto and Ujjwal Pradhan

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Session 5.6 Migrants, land markets & agroforestry: turning the tide with village forest development in Jambi, Indonesia

  1. 1. Migrants, land markets & agroforestry: turning the tide with village forest development in Jambi, Indonesia Gamma Galudra, Meine van Noordwijk, Putra Agung, Suyanto and Ujjwal Pradhan Presented at World Congress on Agroforestry 2014, 10-14 February in Delhi, India
  2. 2. Jambi Overview: 1. Located in Sumatera, Indonesia 2. 50% of population is migrants (Javanese, Bugis and Banjar) esp. in the coastal area 3. Many private investment (oil palm and pulp and paper plantation) 4. High biodiversity remaining in Kerinci Seblat National Park, Bukit Dua Belas National Park and Bukit Tiga Puluh National Park
  3. 3. Underlying cause of forest and agroforestry conversion…. ….. national and regional political economy to promote oil palm and monoculture pulp and paper plantation …. state sponsored and spontaneous migration looking for land and livelihood opportunities …. migrants act as intermediaries in shaping the land tenure system and shift the balance of power between local communities, the state, and business concessions. …. possible of ‘conflicts’ between forest agency, private concessions, migrants and local communities has resulted to forest clearing and severe deforestation
  4. 4. What strategic actions are needed?
  5. 5. 1 Land use policies affecting tenure rights Global national local market demand -Pulp and paper -Oil palm Large scale investment --------------Farmers --------------Forest & land authorities What are the instruments to support communities & land managers to manage landscapes sustainable? Existing local agroforest & farming system Expansion of oil palm, forest plantations, land modifications CO2 emissions, biodiversity loss, hydro’ reduced function Conditional land tenure through village forest & community forest 2 Tenurial conflict & land market
  6. 6. What opportunities role for State sponsored community-based forest management (CBFM) to promote sustainable agroforestry?
  7. 7. Community Based Forest Management Schemes Governing Institution Type of Right Held Duration of Rights Community Forestry (Hutan Kemasyarakatan) Forest Farmer Groups, but after 5 years, must create Farmer Economic Enterprise (Koperasi) Group utilization and harvesting rights. A quota for these rights is imposed each year. Planted timbers for 50 m3 Non timber products for 20 tonnes 35 years and more. Each 5 years are being evaluated. People Plantation Forest (Hutan Tanaman Rakyat) Individual or Farmer Economic Enterprise (Koperasi) Private or group uttilization and harvesting rights. No certain quota is imposed. 60 years and can be extended for another 35 years. Village Forestry (Hutan Desa) Village Institution Management right. A quota (Lembaga Desa), based on for these rights is imposed village regulatioan each year. Planted timbers for 50 m3 Non timber products for 20 tonnes Customary Forest (Hutan Adat) Customary Insitution (Lembaga Adat) Undetermined 35 years and more. Each 5 years are being evaluated. Undetermined
  8. 8. What opportunities role for state sponsored CBFM? 1. Promote clear and stable land tenure security that allows local communities managing forest …. many local communities and migrants do not have tenure security on managing forest However…. …. conflict of interest between migrants & local communities (individual rights vs communal rights) …. fear of elite capture, esp. communal rights (village forest)
  9. 9. What opportunities role for state-sponsored CBFM? 2. Promote sustainable livelihood for local communities through sustainable agroforestry system …. obligation to plant agroforestry system in CBFM concession area …. traditional agroforestry system has been practiced by local communities such as rubber & cinnamon agroforest 3. Promote and maintain biodiversity and environmental services functions …. monitoring mechanism has been regulated through MoF Decree However…. …. it will need to be translated to forest management plan (business plan), long bureaucratic process with many interests
  10. 10. Conclusion ….. threat to agroforestry is caused not only by land conversion through land use planning & government permits, but also by the relational rights between local people & migrants …. CBFM can be the solution but it needs a dispute resolution mechanism to facilitate the difference of stakeholders on ‘land rights’ and business plan
  11. 11. Thank You

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