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Making charcoal use sustainable— mary njenga (icraf) cbd cop12


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Dr. Mary Njenga is a Post-doctoral Fellow in Bioenergy at the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) based in Nairobi, Kenya. She is also visiting lecturer with the Wangari Maathai Institute for Peace and Environmental Studies at the University of Nairobi. Mary has over 17 years’ experience in research and development in natural resource management in drylands, urban agriculture and environment, urban and rural biomass energy technology and innovations, and gender.

Published in: Environment
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Making charcoal use sustainable— mary njenga (icraf) cbd cop12

  1. 1. Making Woodfuel Sustainable *Njenga M., Iiyama M., Dobie P., Jamnadass R., Neufeldt H. Email:* CBD COP2 9 October 2014
  2. 2. Benefits of woodfuel in sub-Saharan Africa • 2.5 billion people depend on biomass energy for cooking - 87% is wood based (IEA 2006). • In SSA, 90% of the population rely on woodfuel (firewood and charcoal) (IEA, 2006). • Charcoal industry annually in Africa is worth >US$ 11 billion employing >7m people in 2030 will be US$12 billion and 12 million people (World Bank, 2011, FAO, 2014,) • In Kenya >Ksh32 billion (US$427m), compares -Ksh35 billion (US$467m) from tea industry
  3. 3. Impacts of woodfuel on health and enviroment  Negative health effects (i) household IAP- 4 million annual deaths globally from respiratory infections affecting mostly women and children. (Lim et al, 2012). Traditional cooking practices in India & Kenya and sourcing firewood in Kenya (ii) sourcing firewood -head, spinal injury to women and children, time and calorific energy expenditure.
  4. 4.  Negative enviromental impacts from charcoal production and firewood collection 8-10t of wood =1 ton of charcoal 3.03t of wood =1 ton of charcoal Current practice: Cutting down of young trees for firewood In the past: Deadwood Wood wastage, air pollution, bush fire, nutrient depletion affect natural regeneration
  5. 5. Charcoal production and implications on biodiversity in different ecological zones In Kenya 2.5m t/year or 6850 t/day biomass stock = 40 t/ha biomass stock = 70 t/ha biomass stock = 260 t/ha www.treeaid.or 10% kiln: 68500t/40(t/ha)=1712ha 10% kiln – 68500t/70(t/ha)=978ha 10% kiln -68500t/260(t/ha)=263ha 30% kiln- 22605t/40(t/ha) =565ha 30% kiln – 22605t/70(t/ha)=323ha 30% kiln – 22605/260(t/ha)=87ha
  6. 6.  Degradation of tree species preferred for charcoal close to markets and hotspots shift to areas far away Photo by G Ndegwa Acacia tortilis Photo by G Ndegwa Acacia nilotica Acacia mearnsii Tarchonanthus camphoratus Prosopis juliflora Negative effects: • Habitat & browse for wildlife and livestock • Products: Medicine, cosmetics, tannin, oil,
  7. 7. Policy framework and implications on sustainability of woodfuel Fragmented approach Value chain Production & processing Transport End-use Wood harvesting by farmers Carbonization by farmers / charcoal burners Collection by middlemen Wholesale by dealers Retail by city traders Consumption by urban households Energy Sector Local Authority, Police Forestry Sector Agricul. Sector Land, tree tenure Outputs from an inter-sectoral coordination Tree planting, farmer managed natural regeneration (FMNR) Sustained income Adoption of sustainable technologies Clear regulatory frameworks, little room for corruption, bribes Efficient devices
  8. 8. Innovations for sustainable and cleaner woodfuel (a) Woodfuel from trees on farm • FMNR in Senegal adopted in over 50,000 hectares of farmland within a 4 year period ( • 80% of wood for energy and construction in Rwanda is from planted forests • 86% of Kenya’s charcoal is sourced from private farms in drylands • 70% of farmers source firewood from Grevillea robusta woodlots in Embu, Kenya Photo by: Oduor • On-farm tree planting for commercial charcoal
  9. 9. (b) Community based fuel briquette technology Rural Charcoal dust+soil Urban Sourcing biomass raw materials and pressing fuel briquettes Drying, selling and use of fuel briquettes Benefits: additional fuel, income, 9 and 15 times cheaper than lump charcoal and kerosene respectively, burn for 4 hrs Vs 2.5 of lump charcoal, 3 times lower CO and 8 times lower PM2.5 than lump charcoal, recycle waste, save trees
  10. 10. (c) Improving cooking technologies Gasifier type of cook stove: Fuel burn under controlled oyxgen and release gases that burn at high temperatures for cooking and by-product is charcoal Benefits: Gasifier saves 40% and 30% of fuel and cooking time respectively used in traditional 3 stone stove and yield 20% charcoal. CO, PM2.5 from gasifier is 45% and 90% lower than traditional 3 stone stove. Saves trees
  11. 11. Making Woodfuel Sustainable Requires • Sustainable wood production: Tree planting and FMNR • Efficient technologies-wood to charcoal, utilization • Capacity development and communication • Enabling cross-sectoral woodfuel policy