Goal: Share with you some of our thinking on this topic in consideration of how we can pursue landscape approaches strategically and systematically, where they make sense, for achieving greater mitigation outcomes, as well as related socio-economic and ecological co-benefits.
Landscape approaches [definition] – you can have a landscape approach to various things. This was often conservation. But also to food security, disaster risk reduction, management of conflict over natural resources. Increasingly, many of these things at once Multi-functionality, and multi-objective ls approaches. Recognition that this is not just about developing good land-use plans – this is a very people-centric process, so… o And when these things are in place, these efforts may be said to constitute specific landscape initiatives taking place over periods of many years in specific landscapes. Led by NGOs, catalyzed by donor projects, or initiated from the grassroots. Characteristics of these…
Adding on – we don’t necessarily need to be involved comprehensively in landscapes – there might be one or two things we can do to expand out from our core strengths and business models. Synergistic mgmt. of production areas and conservation areas. Destinations and landscapes – not just working in the same places but creating synergies between the different efforts there. CSR and core business logic – water, community relations and license to operate, climate, natural disasters – LPFN report (SABMiller, British American Tobacco) CSR – much of the discussion around Net Positive have been in this realm – landscape restoration. Companies going above and beyond where the direct business logic might be weaker Inclusive value chains – where companies have commitment to specific places critical for their supply chains. Can be smallholder, or can be a way of channeling FDI for agriculture, as in the case of WEF New Vision for Agriculture Metrics – measuring performance farm by farm is costly and can also miss changes in key variables. Performance of production landscapes needs to be integrated over larger areas: watershed health, habitat connectivity, regional resilience and economic development. This could lead, eventually, to landscape certification, which is an idea that has been discussed but not really demonstrated. New models for certification – ideas have been proposed by people such as Jaboury Ghazoul (ETH Zurich) and Gotz Schroth but most examples held up as landscape certification are actually conservation/development projects, with a value chain, PES, or conventional certification component. This concept is at the vanguard of innovation for certification, and would require major new R&D to consolidate into a working system. Engagement in multi-stakeholder initiatives – Facilitated government and civil society approaches, spatial planning and land use planning, etc.
This is our landscape. The project area is 36,000 hectares. flanked by a Nature reserve and a Forest Reserve The region is one of the main cocoa producing regions in Ghana and so are of major importance to local livelihoods. BUT at the same time it is also a last frontier in Ghana that still has primary forests. Important to note that Forest Reserves are “managed” forests looked after by the FC
A challenge was how to classify a highly mixed-use landscape, and within that, how to identify and characterize carbon stocks in highly variable cocoa agroforests. Picture shows a brief example of the challenge. Low/no shade cocoa on left, higher shade complex on right. The low/no shade complex seemed to dominate. A goal was to move low/no shade to higher shade but without compromising cocoa production too significantly. Picture also shows riparian and upland forests exhibiting signs of degradation from local use or previous commercial logging, fallow fields, and agricultural production.
A variety of remote sensing tools existed but our resources for the project were limited and required cost-effective options.
First project to pilot REDD+ in Ghana based on a landscape approach to sustainable cocoa production and forest conservation, with linkage to the cocoa commodity market and certification commitments of major traders.
1. Training and Capacity Building on Climate Friendly Agroforestry - Lead farmers trained, served as extension agents for farmer field schools. Application of the SAN Standard and the Climate Module by the first phase of farmers will result in approximately 400,000 tons CO2e sequestered over a period of 20 years. RA helped the cocoa farmers to organize into 12 cooperatives, which improved farmer organization and coordination of activities such as enrichment planting, alternative livelihoods projects, farmer field schools, and overall training delivery.
2. Market Linkages - Pursuing private sector collaboration with Olam International - a leading cocoa buyer on the world market - resulted in more than $360,000 to support technical assistance to cocoa producers in the target area from September 2011 - September 2014. Additionally, farmers were paid premium prices for the certified cocoa, and more importantly, offered regular and predictable market access. An additional 1,256 farmers who manage 3,700 hectares are currently pursuing certification with Olam’s support. Ghana is the first country where the company is piloting a landscape approach to mitigate business risk in its cocoa supply chain. The lessons learned could be applied to other commodities elsewhere.
3. Improved Economic Opportunities - FCCA developed alternative livelihood enterprises around beekeeping and grasscutter rearing. The Juabeso-Bia landscape contains important beekeeping resources that can generate honey, propolis, pollen, and beeswax with relatively limited investments and technical capacity building. Bees are important to the cocoa industry as they are responsible for the pollination of both cocoa and wild plants in the forest resulting in improved yields. Beekeeping enterprises depend on conservation of shade vegetation on cocoa farms and adjacent natural forest stands, and thus complement biodiversity conservation in the landscape. The income from beekeeping is expected to provide highly significant alternate revenues for participating farmers, particularly important during lean times between seasonal cocoa harvests. Similarly, the project piloted a grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) husbandry enterprise. Grasscutters traditionally have been hunted in the wild, but overhunting has created risk of habit degradation during the dry season from bushfires, which are lit by hunters to drive the animals out of the vegetation. Their domestication has been a recent development, but is seen as having potential positive impacts on maintenance of secondary forest vegetation. The local market for grasscutter meat is a promising source of additional revenue. An important off-shoot of the development of these two enterprises was the involvement of local small- scale carpenters. The project provided training to five local carpenters in the construction of beehives and grasscutter cages. These carpenters have been awarded contracts to supply the participating farmers with the equipment. The wood used for the construction is locally sourced from farmers, thereby providing an important potential model for replication in community forest pilots in degraded forest areas.
5. Improved Governance - At the start of the project, FCCA identified several potential project risks, including lack of, or insufficient, internal organizational capacity on the part of communities; lack of clarity on the extent of tree management/rights afforded smallholders; and, marginalization of key stakeholders. FCCA addressed many of these organizational and administrative capacity issues through the development of cooperatives and local authority for land management. In the Juabeso-Bia landscape three scales exist for local community land management: 1) community (an individual village), 2) cluster (grouping of five to six villages), and 3) landscape (encompassing all the villages).
Landscape approache: Defining a role and value proposition for the Rainforest. By Jeff Hayward rainforest alliance-2014-12-5
Defining a role and value proposition for the Rainforest Alliance
5 Dec 2014, Lima COP20
WHY A KEY PART OF OUR STRATEGIES FOR
LIVELIHOODS OR BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION?
• Limitations of certification and production unit approaches to address
certain biodiversity & livelihood threats
• Achieve and document impacts beyond production unit boundaries
• Magnify our impacts by integrating across sectors and with new
• Better address co-related and dependent issues such as REDD+,
zero deforestation, and climate adaptation
• We may not be able to achieve the needed mitigation from AFOLU if
we don’t find a way to work effectively at landscape scale
MODALITIES OF LANDSCAPE APPROACHES (RA)
1 “Adding on, expanding out” – reach beyond current core site based
activities, including more issues, communities, partners.
2 “Destinations and landscapes” – combine agriculture, forestry, and tourism
work in synergistic ways.
3 “Landscape management as CSR” – work with companies to reduce risks
and help guide investments where they can have maximum benefit.
4 “Landscape sustainability metrics” – companies want to show impact at
larger scale, and more efficiently
5 “New models for certification” – develop methods & systems to certify
landscapes, not farms
6 “Business engagement in multi-stakeholder landscape initiatives” –
Greater multi-functionality through land use planning, institutional and
policy alignment, PPPs.
FCCA-GHANA: JUABESO – BIA LANDSCAPE
RESULTS TO DATE ..
• Over 2,000 farmers trained to date according to the SAN sustainability
standards and the additional climate criteria
• Reach of the project to date covers more than 3,700 ha in 36 communities
• Close to 100,000 shade tree seedlings have been planted
• Yield increase of 15-30% resulting in an average income increase of 25%
• Internal management systems developed
• 15 teachers trained and now running environment clubs in 12 junior high
• Climate risks and impacts assessed at community and farm level and activities
to counter these are being put in place
• Sustainable trading relationship developed
• Project objectives align well with World Bank investments in Ghana: FIP, FCPF,
CHALLENGES AND WAYS FORWARD
• Improving Governance, Administration – Strengthen existing governance
structures (community/cluster/landscape) to better support current and future
technical assistance and field implementation.
• Finding best entry point for capacity building - Use scalable training
platforms (lead farmers) and community organizational strengthening
• Markets vs livelihoods/food security - Market-driven approach adds private
sector resources to donor-funding, should be diversified, bundled. Holistic
approach to identify alternative economic incentives to add value to
• Funding extension, technical assistance, over long term – private sector
risk, favorable capital conditions, micro-credit, government program targeting
• Payments for mitigation, landscape Carbon Accounting – methods to
estimate carbon across smallholdings without numerous field measurements,
reducing cost and replicable elsewhere.
The Rainforest Alliance works to conserve biodiversity and ensure sustainable livelihoods
by transforming land-use practices, business practices and consumer behavior.