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TOTAL LANDCARE
LANDCARE PRACTICES AND OPPORTUNITIES IN
MALAWI
CONFERENCE ON BEATING FAMINE
APRIL 14-17, 2015
Analysis of the Challenges
The heart of the problem is Malawi’s high population
density and its impact on natural resourc...
Agriculture - Implications for Farmers
• Despite massive efforts to promote production-increasing technologies,
60% of hou...
Environment Impacts analysis
Growing demands for wood and farm land are causing serious
soil and forest degradation with d...
Forestry - The Deforestation Challenge:
Demand for farm land and wood for fuel & construction
Drivers of deforestation in
Malawi
About 30% of the Urban Population
depends on Firewood for Cooking
8-10 tons wood is nee...
11.01
5.51
0.73
1.70
1.58
0.94 0.29 0.19
MALAWI: Wood Use in 2014 (millions of m3)
Rural Firewood 50.2% Urban Charcoal 25....
Basis for Calculations on Wood Use
• Population: UN estimates for 2014
• Rural & Urban Firewood: 4.38 m3 per ann / HH at 6...
-
2.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
12.00
14.00
16.00
18.00
-
500,000
1,000,000
1,500,000
2,000,000
2,500,000
3,000,000
3,500,000
...
TLC’s Development Philosophy
TLC programs focus on an interactive community approach to
build local capacity for sustained...
Key Land Care Interventions in Malawi – TLC
Community-Based Natural Resource Management:
 Assist communities to establish...
TLC Agricultural & NRM Interventions
Cons Agriculture
Improved
Stoves
Improved Livestock
Tree
Planting
Natural Regeneratio...
Positive impact on maize under the canopy of Faidherbia
trees during a dry spell due to the improved micro-
environment (l...
FARM DIVERSIFICATION
• Decrease vulnerability of households to the risks of crop
failure from dependence on a limited rang...
Group-based Production and Marketing of
Kilombero Rice
Opportunities with Small Livestock
Production Using the Pass-On System
Purpose:
• Milk
• Meat
• Cash
• Live bank
• Status
...
Community Based Natural Resource
Management Interventions
Developing community
based action plans
Raising community
tree n...
Community Initiatives to Improve Wood
Supplies for Basic Needs
1. Plant trees and bamboo on homesteads, farms
and communal...
IMPROVED COOK STOVES
Goal: To use carbon credits to finance the cost of
supporting village households to install and use
i...
TLC Rocket Stove
TLC Half Wall Kitchen for Good Ventilation to
Reduce Respiratory/Eye Ailments from Smoke
Impacts of Improved Cook-Stoves
• Decreases exposure to respiratory diseases
• Lowers noxious effects of smoke to the lung...
Emerging Opportunities for LandCare in
Malawi
• Sustainable Land Management Programmes Frameworks
• Various policies and a...
Thanks for Listening !
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Information in this presentation was produced by Total
LandCare with support and collaboration from the
G...
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LANDCARE PRACTICES AND OPPORTUNITIES IN MALAWI

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LANDCARE PRACTICES AND OPPORTUNITIES IN MALAWI

  1. 1. TOTAL LANDCARE LANDCARE PRACTICES AND OPPORTUNITIES IN MALAWI CONFERENCE ON BEATING FAMINE APRIL 14-17, 2015
  2. 2. Analysis of the Challenges The heart of the problem is Malawi’s high population density and its impact on natural resources. There are other economic forces driving environmental degradation Understanding the challenges in the local context is the first step in developing a practical plan to address them in a sustainable manner.
  3. 3. Agriculture - Implications for Farmers • Despite massive efforts to promote production-increasing technologies, 60% of households live below the poverty line. Another 20% are only marginally better. • Land holdings are shrinking and becoming more fragmented with declining soil fertility and falling crop yields. • Marginal areas have been converted to farming with devastating levels of degradation from unsustainable land-use practices. • Fallows have been replaced by continuous cultivation under the destructive, labor-intensive practice of ridging with a focus on mono- cropping and subsidized chemical inputs at the expense of more sustainable options. • Most households lack the resources, capital and support to undertake sound agronomic and animal husbandry practices. • In their struggle to survive, farmers are unable to make the critical trade- off between sustained resource use and immediate short-term needs.
  4. 4. Environment Impacts analysis Growing demands for wood and farm land are causing serious soil and forest degradation with devastating consequences : • Supplies of wood to meet basic needs are being depleted, forcing greater time and effort to find, cut and carry wood, depriving them of other opportunities • Ground water is not being replenished and stream flows are decreasing, limiting access to water for basic domestic and farm needs • Silt deposits in rivers, lakes and dams impact fisheries and hydro-power • Runoff and loss of top soil: More than 50% of the rainfall runs off the farm carrying an average of 20 tons of top soil/ha every season with upwards of 100 tons on steep lands.
  5. 5. Forestry - The Deforestation Challenge: Demand for farm land and wood for fuel & construction
  6. 6. Drivers of deforestation in Malawi About 30% of the Urban Population depends on Firewood for Cooking 8-10 tons wood is needed to make 1 ton of charcoal in local kilns • Flue Cured Tobacco needs 18 cubic meters of solid wood (10 tons) to cure 1 ton of Tobacco • Burley Tobacco Sheds require an average of 8.5 m3 of wood to cure 1 ton of tobacco over the life of the shed
  7. 7. 11.01 5.51 0.73 1.70 1.58 0.94 0.29 0.19 MALAWI: Wood Use in 2014 (millions of m3) Rural Firewood 50.2% Urban Charcoal 25.1% Urban Firewood 3.3% Tobacco 7.7% Brick Making + Industry 7.2% Building by Rural HHs 4.3% Building by Urban HHs 1.3% Tea 0.9%
  8. 8. Basis for Calculations on Wood Use • Population: UN estimates for 2014 • Rural & Urban Firewood: 4.38 m3 per ann / HH at 6 kg per day (others report 8-10 kg) • Urban Charcoal: Wood equivalent of 14.6 m3 per annum / HH (2.5 kg per day at a ratio of 8:1 to convert wood into charcoal – conservative ratio) • Tobacco/Tea: Wood needs to cure the 2014 crop • Brick / Lime Making / other Industrial Uses: Figures on this are conservative estimates • Building for Rural & Urban HHs: Wood for constructing houses and farm structures
  9. 9. - 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 18.00 - 500,000 1,000,000 1,500,000 2,000,000 2,500,000 3,000,000 3,500,000 4,000,000 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Change in Forest Cover (ha) in Malawi between 1990 and 2015 in relation to Population Growth Ha under Forest Population (millions-right axis) Forest Change: 0.98% per annum vs 2.8% pop. growth Sources: 1) UN Projections of 2008 National Census Data. NSO, Ministry of Economic Planning & Development Malawi. 2) WT Bunderson Extrapolations of http://rainforests.mongabay.com/ deforestation/2000/Malawi.htm
  10. 10. TLC’s Development Philosophy TLC programs focus on an interactive community approach to build local capacity for sustained improvements in agricultural productivity, diversification, natural resource management and incomes • The aim is to instill a strong sense of ownership and responsibility by transferring knowledge, skills and resources for communities to become self-sufficient under the slogan of “giving a hand-up, not a hand-out”. • Extension services emphasize a diverse range of “proven” interventions to address multiple needs which create synergies for sustainability and impact.
  11. 11. Key Land Care Interventions in Malawi – TLC Community-Based Natural Resource Management:  Assist communities to establish/improve local governance structures to support development of co-management agreements with Govt. Agencies  Train and support communities to raise and plant tree and bamboo seedlings  Develop capacity of communities to manage land for natural regeneration  Introduce fuel-efficient stoves to reduce wood use Environmentally Sound Agricultural Practices  Promote conservation agriculture with min tillage, good soil cover and rotations/intercrops  Support Agroforestry initiatives and Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration  Integrate other conservation practices such as contour hedges of vetiver and leguminous shrubs (Tephrosia, Sesbania, Gliricidia) Increased Productivity & Profitability by Diversification & Intensification:  Promote diversification with crops and livestock that are well adapted to the local agro-ecology and farming system with varieties resistant to drought and diseases  Support low-cost irrigation in areas where there is suitable land to increase food security, incomes, diet diversity and nutrition  Encourage production of high value crops with links to good input and output markets (e,g,, spices, vegetables, tree crops such as coffee and macadamia)
  12. 12. TLC Agricultural & NRM Interventions Cons Agriculture Improved Stoves Improved Livestock Tree Planting Natural Regeneration CA with Faidherbia Winter Irrigation Treadle Pump Irrigation •CDMAFRICASUSTAINABLEENERGYPROGRAMME Diversification with Sugar Beans under CA
  13. 13. Positive impact on maize under the canopy of Faidherbia trees during a dry spell due to the improved micro- environment (left) and with a good maize crop (right) Integration of CA with Faidherbia
  14. 14. FARM DIVERSIFICATION • Decrease vulnerability of households to the risks of crop failure from dependence on a limited range of crops under the growing unpredictable nature of weather • Increase diet diversity for better nutrition in rural households • Reduce pest and disease problems from mono-cropping • Offer opportunities to hedge risks and make larger profits due to widely fluctuating prices in the market for different commodities.
  15. 15. Group-based Production and Marketing of Kilombero Rice
  16. 16. Opportunities with Small Livestock Production Using the Pass-On System Purpose: • Milk • Meat • Cash • Live bank • Status • Manure  Use improved local breeds that are hardy and well adapted to the local environment  Increasing demand for animal protein  High reproduction rate with low investment in capital, land and labor = high return in income / protein.  Easy to manage, low incidence of disease, drought tolerant and feeding flexibility.  Meat acceptability: No taboos or religious restrictions hence easy marketing. Goats: 2-5 females/HH with 1 He-Goat per 30 females (group of Hholds) Chickens: 10-20 hens + 1 cock /HH
  17. 17. Community Based Natural Resource Management Interventions Developing community based action plans Raising community tree nurseries Raising community woodlots Natural Regeneration: Easy and flexible to do (no nurseries or planting), reduces deforestation, restores biodiversity and provides diverse products Management and integration of existing F/albida into crop production systems
  18. 18. Community Initiatives to Improve Wood Supplies for Basic Needs 1. Plant trees and bamboo on homesteads, farms and communal lands 2. Promote natural regeneration on and off farm 3. Introduce improved cook-stoves Each on its own has limited impact, but together, they can make a real difference on deforestation
  19. 19. IMPROVED COOK STOVES Goal: To use carbon credits to finance the cost of supporting village households to install and use improved cook stoves. 3-stone fire Improved Cook Stove Carbon Credits
  20. 20. TLC Rocket Stove
  21. 21. TLC Half Wall Kitchen for Good Ventilation to Reduce Respiratory/Eye Ailments from Smoke
  22. 22. Impacts of Improved Cook-Stoves • Decreases exposure to respiratory diseases • Lowers noxious effects of smoke to the lungs and eyes • Eliminates severe burns to children falling into open fires Health benefits • Immediate effects on reducing deforestation • Cuts wood use & CG emissions by 60% or more • Lowers threats to climate change Environment benefits • 60% less time by women & girls to collect firewood • Reduced sexual assaults from fewer trips to the bush • Great opportunities for IGAs & education for girls • Potential for carbon revenues Social & Economic benefits
  23. 23. Emerging Opportunities for LandCare in Malawi • Sustainable Land Management Programmes Frameworks • Various policies and acts in place (Draft National Climate change policy, National Environmental Policy 2004, Environmental Management Act 1996, NAPAs and NAP (under development) National Climate Investment Plan. • National Agriculture Policy under Development • DRM policy in placed Government and political will • NGOs and Civil Society donor funding • Adaptation funds, Green Climate funds etc Donor Support • Involvement of CGIAR and research organizations • Improved partner collaboration and synergy (even financial and banking sectors) • Increased community awareness and participation Improved Partner coordination
  24. 24. Thanks for Listening !
  25. 25. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Information in this presentation was produced by Total LandCare with support and collaboration from the Governments of Malawi, Tanzania, Mozambique and Zambia, the Royal Norwegian Embassy, USAID and the British Government through DFID TOTAL LANDCARE P.O. Box 2440 Area 14, Plot 100 Lilongwe, Malawi Tel: +265 1 770 904 / 905; Fax: +265 1 770 919 Email: total.landcare.mw@gmail.com Website: www.totallandcare.org from the British people

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