Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
EVERGREEN AGRICULTURE IN EAST AFRICA




                 Jonathan Muriuki
   Presentation at the Beating Famine Conferenc...
Presentation summary
•   Farming as usual – is it sustainable?
•   CAWT
•   Evergreen agriculture
•   Characterisation
•  ...
HUMID                   Eastern Africa   DRYLANDS
HIGHLANDS
                        Main features
                        ...
Conventional Farming – This is how we produce food




  Trees are kept off cropland and soil is turned over leading to :-...
Intensive Tillage destroys the
      biological and ecological
      integrity of the soil system.




Before             ...
Our high potential land is sloppy and
                                    vulnerable!




Conventional farming on sloppy l...
81% of the land is semi-arid and cycles of floods and droughts
together with overgrazing leads to massive degradation
Permanent
        Minimum Soil
                                          Soil Cover
        Disturbance


CA is a
Concept
...
True Conservation
                  is
          carbon management.
Conservation Agriculture provides beneficial ecosystem...
A collective name for land use systems and practices in which
               woody perennials are deliberately integrated ...
Types of Agroforestry

1. Agroforests: combinations of perennial species on
   arable land
2. Home gardens with perennials...
What is Evergreen Agriculture?

A form of more intensive
    farming that integrates
    trees with annual
    crops, main...
Trees incorporation into crop fields and
agricultural landscapes may contribute to
i.      maintaining vegetative soil cov...
Types of Evergreen Agriculture
Regeneration   Conventional   Conservation
method /       agriculture    agriculture
practi...
Some examples of Evergreen Agriculture in EA

•    Fodder shrubs for balanced dairy nutrition (eg Caliandra
     in the Ea...
When integrated with CA, trees ensure
1.   Minimum soil disturbance. The roots of tree/shrub
     species and the soil fau...
For successful scaling up, an Evergreen
     agriculture programme needs
       Germplasm                                 ...
What have we learned from the impacts already
  achieved, and about the key farmer incentives
                  for adopti...
A portfolio of projects in EA
1. Sida funded CAWT – Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia
   and Ghana
2. IFAD funded scalign up evergre...
Characterizing typologies
Large heterogeneity in performance of any
particular AF technology, and hence the need to
unders...
Characterizing typologies
Machakos                                   Mbarali
  Small farms average size of 1ha and 60%    ...
Traditional practices tempered with
               science
Approaches for germplasm supply



                      • Rural resource
                        centres
                ...
Approaches for extension
Government as the default and most sustainable – ministry
of agriculture (not forestry?)

NGOs ne...
Demonstrations and participatory trials
 • At rural resource centres,
   satelite nurseries, ATCs

 • At least one per
   ...
Knowledge management and communication
 • To enhance scaling up and out
 • Conducting knowledge needs assessment, designin...
DRIVERS OF CHANGE
Ecosystem degradation can rarely be reversed without
actions that address one or more indirect drivers o...
AHSANTE


Creating an Evergreen Agriculture
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

of

Jonathan Muriuki: Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa #BeatingFamine Slide 1 Jonathan Muriuki: Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa #BeatingFamine Slide 2 Jonathan Muriuki: Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa #BeatingFamine Slide 3 Jonathan Muriuki: Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa #BeatingFamine Slide 4 Jonathan Muriuki: Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa #BeatingFamine Slide 5 Jonathan Muriuki: Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa #BeatingFamine Slide 6 Jonathan Muriuki: Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa #BeatingFamine Slide 7 Jonathan Muriuki: Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa #BeatingFamine Slide 8 Jonathan Muriuki: Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa #BeatingFamine Slide 9 Jonathan Muriuki: Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa #BeatingFamine Slide 10 Jonathan Muriuki: Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa #BeatingFamine Slide 11 Jonathan Muriuki: Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa #BeatingFamine Slide 12 Jonathan Muriuki: Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa #BeatingFamine Slide 13 Jonathan Muriuki: Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa #BeatingFamine Slide 14 Jonathan Muriuki: Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa #BeatingFamine Slide 15 Jonathan Muriuki: Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa #BeatingFamine Slide 16 Jonathan Muriuki: Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa #BeatingFamine Slide 17 Jonathan Muriuki: Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa #BeatingFamine Slide 18 Jonathan Muriuki: Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa #BeatingFamine Slide 19 Jonathan Muriuki: Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa #BeatingFamine Slide 20 Jonathan Muriuki: Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa #BeatingFamine Slide 21 Jonathan Muriuki: Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa #BeatingFamine Slide 22 Jonathan Muriuki: Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa #BeatingFamine Slide 23 Jonathan Muriuki: Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa #BeatingFamine Slide 24 Jonathan Muriuki: Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa #BeatingFamine Slide 25 Jonathan Muriuki: Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa #BeatingFamine Slide 26 Jonathan Muriuki: Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa #BeatingFamine Slide 27 Jonathan Muriuki: Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa #BeatingFamine Slide 28
Upcoming SlideShare
Agnes Leina: Indigenous women, IFAD forum for indigenous peoples (2013)
Next
Download to read offline and view in fullscreen.

0 Likes

Share

Download to read offline

Jonathan Muriuki: Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa #BeatingFamine

Download to read offline

Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa

Related Books

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Related Audiobooks

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all
  • Be the first to like this

Jonathan Muriuki: Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa #BeatingFamine

  1. 1. EVERGREEN AGRICULTURE IN EAST AFRICA Jonathan Muriuki Presentation at the Beating Famine Conference ICRAF, Nairobi 11 April 2012
  2. 2. Presentation summary • Farming as usual – is it sustainable? • CAWT • Evergreen agriculture • Characterisation • Germplasm supply • Extension approaches • Knowledge management
  3. 3. HUMID Eastern Africa DRYLANDS HIGHLANDS Main features 81 % of total land High Pop. Density mass (Home to > 50 % of region’s pop) Significant in Kenya (75 %); Supply > 50 % of regions staple & cash Tanzania & crops Ethiopia (50 %) Important water Pastoralism / Agro- towers pastoralism Rainfed & irrigated Irrigated and agriculture rainfed agriculture Major crops: Maize, Major crops: potato, banana, Sorghum, millet & wheat, coffee, tea, cassava, cotton arrow roots
  4. 4. Conventional Farming – This is how we produce food Trees are kept off cropland and soil is turned over leading to :- - Disruption of soil life - High surface area for moisture loss
  5. 5. Intensive Tillage destroys the biological and ecological integrity of the soil system. Before After After Primary Primary Secondary Tillage Tillage Tillage “Earthworms are allergic to cold steel!” Credit: Mike Bell 15 July, 2003
  6. 6. Our high potential land is sloppy and vulnerable! Conventional farming on sloppy lands without conservation leads to • Huge soil losses due to run-off • Quick degradation • Landslides and floods especially due to lack of tree roots
  7. 7. 81% of the land is semi-arid and cycles of floods and droughts together with overgrazing leads to massive degradation
  8. 8. Permanent Minimum Soil Soil Cover Disturbance CA is a Concept Conservation about Agriculture Inclusiveness and Integration Simultaneous Application of Practices Crop Rotations and Associations
  9. 9. True Conservation is carbon management. Conservation Agriculture provides beneficial ecosystem services: 1. Food, fiber and biofuels 2. Less erosion, less pollution, clean water, fresh air, healthy soil, natural fertility, higher production, carbon credits, beautiful landscape, sustainability etc., etc. …… Soil carbon is a priceless key to the planet’s health and our environmental quality.
  10. 10. A collective name for land use systems and practices in which woody perennials are deliberately integrated with crops and/or animals on the same land management unit either in a spatial Agroforestry mixture or in a temporal sequence resulting in both ecological and economic interactions between woody and non-woody components.
  11. 11. Types of Agroforestry 1. Agroforests: combinations of perennial species on arable land 2. Home gardens with perennials 3. Woodlots or farm forests 4. Sylvopastoral systems: Trees in pastures 5. Trees on field and farm boundaries 6. Evergreen Agriculture: Trees intercropped with field crops
  12. 12. What is Evergreen Agriculture? A form of more intensive farming that integrates trees with annual crops, maintaining a green cover on the land throughout the year. Evergreen farming systems are ‘double- story’ systems that feature both perennial and annual species (food crops and trees).
  13. 13. Trees incorporation into crop fields and agricultural landscapes may contribute to i. maintaining vegetative soil cover year-round (Boffa,1999), ii. bolstering nutrient supply through nitrogen fixation and nutrient cycling (Barnes and Fagg, 2003), iii. enhanced suppression of insect pests and weeds (Sileshi et al. 2006), iv. improved soil structure and water infiltration (Chirwa et al. 2007), v. greater direct production of food, fodder, fuel, fiber and income from products produced by the intercropped trees (Garrity, 2004), vi. enhanced carbon storage both above-ground and belowground (Makumba et al. 2007), vii. greater quantities of organic matter in soil surface residues (Akinnifesi et al. 2007), and viii. more effective conservation of above- and belowground biodiversity (Scherr and McNeeley, 2009).
  14. 14. Types of Evergreen Agriculture Regeneration Conventional Conservation method / agriculture agriculture practice Deliberate Planned CoAWT Planned CAWT planting Assisted natural Managed Managed CAWT regeneration CoAWT
  15. 15. Some examples of Evergreen Agriculture in EA • Fodder shrubs for balanced dairy nutrition (eg Caliandra in the East African Dairy Project) • Mango and other fruits intercropped in maize systems • Grevillia robusta intercropped in maize for timber, fodder & fuel • Faidherbia albida in maize production systems (CA being tested) • Intercropped coppicing leguminous trees in maize (eg Gliricidia in Malawi tested in Western Kenya and KIbwezi) • Relay-cropped leguminous species managed as annual green manure (eg Tephrosia) –
  16. 16. When integrated with CA, trees ensure 1. Minimum soil disturbance. The roots of tree/shrub species and the soil fauna take over the tillage function, soil nutrient mobilization and balancing 2. Adequate soil cover. The trees add biomass, which protects the soil and feeds the soil biota (i.e. biological plough). This also ensures better carbon storage than CA alone 3. Trees in the rotation/ intercrop reduce weeds, insect pests and diseases; Thus increasing savings from inputs such as fertilizer and herbicides
  17. 17. For successful scaling up, an Evergreen agriculture programme needs Germplasm Practices Right species, Characterization Tree management Seeds, and seedling of typologies spacing, niches, CA, systems tree crop interactions, etc Knowledge to Action with further research (Rural resource centers) Support for Favorable policies, national scaling extension networks, up programmes capacity building at all levels Enabling environment
  18. 18. What have we learned from the impacts already achieved, and about the key farmer incentives for adoption? 1. There are multiple benefits and repercussions on crop productivity, yield resilience, fodder production, fuelwood availability, timber as an income source, and systems sustainability. 2. Scaling-up models will differ across agro- ecological zones and countries
  19. 19. A portfolio of projects in EA 1. Sida funded CAWT – Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia and Ghana 2. IFAD funded scalign up evergreen agriculture – Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Lesotho 3. IFAD funded through CIMMYT - Enhancing total farm productivity – Building on SIMLESA - Kenya and Ethiopia
  20. 20. Characterizing typologies Large heterogeneity in performance of any particular AF technology, and hence the need to understand that ‘technology x context’ interaction • Socio-economic baselines • Land health baselines • Tree diversity surveys • Characterizing seed/seedling supply systems including testing potential of FMNR
  21. 21. Characterizing typologies Machakos Mbarali Small farms average size of 1ha and 60% Bigger farms average size of 3ha but 41% experience food deficit at some point in experience food deficit at some point in the year the year Farmers plant exotic species Farmers protect indigenous species but Little knowledge of fertilizer trees many trees are old Half of seedlings sourced from own or Few exotic species planted for fruits and private nursery and one-fifth of trees fuelwood naturally regenerated Indigenous knowledge on F. albida as Demand for seedlings of some species fertilizer trees is common but not many outstrips supply and purchases are other species common The few planted trees mainly sourced Farmers lack knowledge on CA and little from project and school nurseries on AF Farmers lack knowledge on CA and little Several private nurseries recorded on AF and few have attended training on Farmers in collective action groups but farming technologies more focused on rural finance than Few private nurseries recorded and agriculture seedling purchase not common
  22. 22. Traditional practices tempered with science
  23. 23. Approaches for germplasm supply • Rural resource centres • Satelite nurseries and demonstrations in schools – healthy learning approach • Group nurseries • Individually operated nurseries (pseudo- extension) • FMNR approaches
  24. 24. Approaches for extension Government as the default and most sustainable – ministry of agriculture (not forestry?) NGOs network – KENDAT, World Vision, others in Tanzania Approaches – Landcare, rural resource centres, satelite nurseries (with healthy learning), farmer field schools Demonstrations Innovative farmers and nursery operators
  25. 25. Demonstrations and participatory trials • At rural resource centres, satelite nurseries, ATCs • At least one per demonstration per intervention village • Also serve as participatory on-farm trials to test acceptance of technology • High replication to allow biophysical measurements with sufficient precision
  26. 26. Knowledge management and communication • To enhance scaling up and out • Conducting knowledge needs assessment, designing information sharing tools like print, electronic/digital and live folk media. • Developing appropriate knowledge and information sharing products (KISP) - include, print media; electronic/digital media to enhance information flow, learning and sharing at different levels of governance • Facilitating promotion of rural resource centres at district levels to enhance cross regional knowledge and information sharing. • Setting up of web pages within the ICRAF and other partner organizations websites and interactive sites such as phone- web system. • Communication strategy developed with all stakeholders
  27. 27. DRIVERS OF CHANGE Ecosystem degradation can rarely be reversed without actions that address one or more indirect drivers of change: – public participation in decision-making – cultural factors – technological change Collectively these factors influence the level of production and consumption of ecosystem services and sustainability of the production base.
  28. 28. AHSANTE Creating an Evergreen Agriculture

Evergreen Agriculture in East Africa

Views

Total views

4,524

On Slideshare

0

From embeds

0

Number of embeds

110

Actions

Downloads

19

Shares

0

Comments

0

Likes

0

×