Hunja seminar 27th october


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Hunja seminar 27th october

  1. 1. Utilization of Bamboo in Fixing Biomass From Wastewater Progress Report By Hunja Murage Supervisors: Prof. C. Ong, Dr.K. Ngamau, Dr. C. Muthuri
  2. 2. Introduction 1 <ul><li>■ Water pollution is a major problem in Kenya. </li></ul><ul><li>■ Effluent from industries and human settlements is the main source of the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>■ Rural urban migration has given pollution an urban focus. </li></ul><ul><li>■ Effluent finds its way into the water supply: both surface and ground water. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction 2 <ul><li>■ The forest cover in Kenya is under siege, because of increased need for settlement, farmland and forest products. </li></ul><ul><li>■ Bamboo can, while providing a substitute for wood, because of its water pumping properties, be useful in fixing biomass from wastewater. </li></ul><ul><li>■ Wastewater from urban areas is not suited to growing food crops due to pollutants. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives <ul><li>To test bamboo species for their utility in wastewater treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>To test the tolerance of these bamboo species to high nutrient conditions. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Hypotheses <ul><li>■ Different bamboo species respond to wastewater by taking up nutrients and increase leaf area. </li></ul><ul><li>■ Water use efficiency will remain relatively similar between species </li></ul><ul><li>■ Wastewater has little impact on water use efficiency </li></ul>
  6. 6. Materials & Methods <ul><li>■ 3 bamboo species, Bambusa vulgaris, Dendrocalamus giganteus , and Bambusa X were used in this study. </li></ul><ul><li>■ They were grown in 100 litre pots at the JKUAT experimental farm, in a randomized complete block design. </li></ul><ul><li>■ Wastewater from the University treatment ponds was used to irrigate the plants </li></ul>
  7. 7. Materials & Methods <ul><li>■ Growth parameters such as plant height, leaf number, number of branches, collar diameter were taken at monthly intervals. </li></ul><ul><li>■ Infra Red Gas Analyzer was used to measure assimilation, evaporation and stomatal conductance twice a week. </li></ul><ul><li>■ Measures of chlorophyll content were also taken using SPAD, and soil moisture levels monitored with a moisture metre. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Bamboo Wastewater Trial in Juja
  9. 9. Constitution of Juja wastewater <ul><li>■ The levels of K and Na are very high. </li></ul><ul><li>■ This would have an effect in the opening and closing of stomata. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>■ The diurnal assimilation trend for the 3 bamboo species is the same. </li></ul><ul><li>■ The plants receiving wastewater (red) have higher levels of assimilation than clean water (black). </li></ul>(from 8am)
  11. 11. <ul><li>■ The diurnal stomatal conductance trend for the 3 bamboo species is the same. </li></ul><ul><li>■ This supports the data on diurnal assimilation. </li></ul>(from 8am)
  12. 12. <ul><li>■ D. giganteus has a higher Instantaneous WUE. </li></ul><ul><li>■ Plants receiving wastewater appear to have a higher WUE in comparison to clean water plants. </li></ul>giant
  13. 13. Stem & Branch Biomass <ul><li>■ Plants receiving waste water (-w) had the biggest culm and branch weight. </li></ul><ul><li>■ Bambusa vulgaris (middle) did not show sensitivity to wastewater. </li></ul>B. vulgaris Giant B. x
  14. 14. Leaf Biomass <ul><li>■ Total leaf weight showed a clear difference between plants receiving wastewater and clean water. </li></ul>Giant B. vulgaris B.x
  15. 15. Biomass <ul><li>■ XW and VW had the highest number of new branches. </li></ul><ul><li>■ GW had a decrease in number of branches in the same period. </li></ul>B.x B.v. giant
  16. 16. <ul><li>■ B. vulgaris and B.x had more than double the leaf area of the other treatments. </li></ul><ul><li>■ These treatments therefore have assimilation and evaporation rates that are three times of the other three. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>■ Wastewater plants (orange) had higher chlorophyll values </li></ul>
  18. 18. Preliminary Conclusions <ul><li>■ Confirm hypothesis 1 that main responses to wastewater is increase in leaf area and chlorophyll. </li></ul><ul><li>■ Although giant bamboo appears to have a higher WUE it is also the slowest growing. </li></ul><ul><li>■ Water use efficiency was relatively similar although wastewater WUE appeared to be higher (significance?). </li></ul>
  19. 19. Further Studies <ul><li>■ Different sources of wastewater particularly from industrial sites to be investigated. </li></ul><ul><li>■ A wider range of concentration of wastewater to be tested. </li></ul><ul><li>■ Analysis of nutrient uptake to be carried out. </li></ul>