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Healthy living soils sustaining increased productivity and ecosystem services

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Soil as key natural capital for multiple ecosystem services

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Healthy living soils sustaining increased productivity and ecosystem services

  1. 1. « 4 p e r 1 0 0 0 » A f r i c a S y m p o s i u m Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 Withthesupport of1 Ermias Betemariam Leigh Winowiecki Tor-Gunnar Vagen Healthy living soils: sustaining increased productivity and ecosystem services
  2. 2. « 4 p e r 1 0 0 0 » A f r i c a S y m p o s i u m Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 Withthesupport of “Yield gaps as poverty traps” Tittonell and Giller (2013) Investments in roads and improvements in soil fertility potentially reduce poverty rates (Okwi et al.,2013)
  3. 3. « 4 p e r 1 0 0 0 » A f r i c a S y m p o s i u m Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 Withthesupport of Soil as key natural capital for multiple ecosystem services
  4. 4. « 4 p e r 1 0 0 0 » A f r i c a S y m p o s i u m Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 Withthesupport of The objectives of LDN are to: • maintain or improve the sustainable delivery of ecosystem services; • maintain or improve productivity, in order to enhance food security; • increase resilience of the land and populations dependent on the land; • seek synergies with other social, economic and environmental objectives; and • reinforce responsible and inclusive governance of land
  5. 5. « 4 p e r 1 0 0 0 » A f r i c a S y m p o s i u m Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 Withthesupport of Shifting cultivation as forest loss in Africa Classifying drivers of global forest loss (Curtis et al. 2018) Counterbalancing future land degradation • More attention to address past land degradation • But we rarely anticipate (forecast, model, project) likely NEW degradation • Monitoring progress & learning for adaptive management (Research) • Information for informed public &private decisions to optimize the selection of interventions & minimize trade offs.
  6. 6. « 4 p e r 1 0 0 0 » A f r i c a S y m p o s i u m Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 Withthesupport of Tillage: increases respiration: SOC decrease Harvesting: reduces inputs = SOC decrease Land use change = SOC increase or decrease SOC sequestration = Increasing SOC stocks through the increase of inputs and/or decreasing C decomposition (M. Stocking, 2012) Inputs Litter, roots, branches, microbes Outputs • Autotrophic respiration: roots • Heterotrophic respiration: CO2 respiration of soil organisms that use dead plant matter as a food source What determines the amount of SOC? SOC: you lose it fast you regain it (very) slowly
  7. 7. « 4 p e r 1 0 0 0 » A f r i c a S y m p o s i u m Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 Withthesupport of • Measuring & monitoring SOC is challenging • Express the uncertainty in recommendations or to validate them • Avoid transfers decision risk to users • Using SLM practices as a rewarding mechanism, behavioral change Evidence: effects of SLM on SOC
  8. 8. « 4 p e r 1 0 0 0 » A f r i c a S y m p o s i u m Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 Withthesupport of 8 Ermias Betemariam | COP13| Ordos, China| Sept. 14, 2017 | Evidence: effects of SLM on the environment Holistic valuation of SLM impacts on ecosystem services is important
  9. 9. « 4 p e r 1 0 0 0 » A f r i c a S y m p o s i u m Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 Withthesupport of Soil spectroscopy § Rapid § Low cost § Reproducible § Predicts many soil functional properties New advances in soil health monitoring Capacity development is a priority in Africa (15 countries have soil spectral labs) • Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) • EthioSIS, GhaSIS, NiSIS, TanSIS
  10. 10. « 4 p e r 1 0 0 0 » A f r i c a S y m p o s i u m Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 Withthesupport of • The Land Degradation Surveillance Framework (LDSF) • A systematic field-based assessment of multiple variables at the same geo-referenced location • Allows for rapid assessments of indicators of land and soil health • Allows for the production of high quality maps of key indicators • Robust statistical analysis on drivers of degradation • Can be used to monitor changes over time • Field guide available online here: http://landscapeportal.org/blog/2015/03 /25/the-land-degradation-surveillance- framework-ldsf/ Using Systematic Biophysical Assessments of Land and Soil Health: Establishing Baselines and Monitoring Trends
  11. 11. « 4 p e r 1 0 0 0 » A f r i c a S y m p o s i u m Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 Withthesupport of http://landscapeportal.org/blog/2015/03/25/the- land-degradation-surveillance-framework-ldsf/
  12. 12. « 4 p e r 1 0 0 0 » A f r i c a S y m p o s i u m Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 Withthesupport of National Soil Organic Carbon Stock Estimates Winowiecki, L., Vågen, T.-G., & Huising, J. (2014). Effects of land cover on ecosystem services in Tanzania: A spatial assessment of soil organic carbon. Geoderma, 263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2015.03.010
  13. 13. « 4 p e r 1 0 0 0 » A f r i c a S y m p o s i u m Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 Withthesupport of • gdg
  14. 14. « 4 p e r 1 0 0 0 » A f r i c a S y m p o s i u m Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 Withthesupport of https://theconversation.com/lessons-from-kenya-on- how-to-restore-degraded-land-98178 Relationship between low carbon in the soil and high erosion – to prioritize and monitor land restoration options
  15. 15. « 4 p e r 1 0 0 0 » A f r i c a S y m p o s i u m Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 Withthesupport of Maps of Soil Organic Carbon- Decision Dashboards
  16. 16. « 4 p e r 1 0 0 0 » A f r i c a S y m p o s i u m Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 Withthesupport of http://landscapeportal.org/tools http://www.worldagroforestry.org/shared
  17. 17. « 4 p e r 1 0 0 0 » A f r i c a S y m p o s i u m Johannesburg, 24-26th October 2018 Withthesupport of Healthy soils Healthy crops Healthy livestock Healthy people Thank you Ermias Betemariam (e.betemariam@cgiar.org) Leigh Winowiecki (L.A.WINOWIECKI@CGIAR.ORG) Tor-Gunnar Vagen (T.VAGEN@CGIAR.ORG)

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