Hidden Capital: Harnessing Belowground Biodiversity     for Sustainable Agricultural Landscapes        Edmundo Barrios    ...
OUTLINE1. Degrading our Natural capital2. Belowground Biodiversity Inside Out3. Soil Based-Ecosystem Functions/Services4. ...
1. Degrading our Natural Capital
Earth experiencing DIRECTIONAL CHANGES in many drivers of human-environment processes                              Steffen...
MA Findings in a Nutshell                 Growing demands                for food, freshwater,                 timber, fib...
DEFORESTATION AND BIODIVERSITY LOSS    BRAZILIAN AMAZON (1988-2008)                                   3.5  Million ha defo...
Are we looking at the tip of the iceberg?                     Aboveground                     biodiversity                ...
1. Degrading our Natural capital2. Belowground Biodiversity and   Function
BIODIVERSITY IN    AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES                Planned and managed       AGBD aboveground biodiversity       Ab...
Limited knowledge about soil biota         BLACK BOX APPROACHINPUTS                          OUTPUTS
+BGBD likely higher than Aboveground                   Modif. Wall et al 2001, Barrios 2007 EcolEcon
OPENING THE BLACK BOX                  BGBD            SOIL PROCESSESINPUTS                           OUTPUTS
Soil biota must be selectively       studied because:• There is no single method for  studying soil biodiversity• It is no...
Internationally accepted standardmethods for the inventory of BGBDHandbook with methods for the  inventory of BGBD• Genera...
KEY FUNCTIONAL GROUPS               OF SOIL BIOTA      Maize                           Legume                             ...
BACTERIAL DIVERSITY IN SOIL                       100 g Soil       5 x 1011 Colonies        DNA Extraction        on Agar ...
Molecular Approaches        ABUNDANCE                           RICHNESS                          ACTIVITY       Microscop...
BARCODED PYROSEQUENCING                         From 118 soil samples                      (4 Sentinel sites in Tanzania) ...
BUT SOIL ORGANISMS ARE NOT              EVERYWHEREEnvironmental influences   Disturbance          Population processesFine...
Some effects of trees are mediated throughimpact on soil biota – trees increase abundanceMean density of different soil bi...
Some effects of trees are mediated throughimpact on soil biota – trees increase activityGreater soil biological activity (...
TREES AS HOTSPOTS OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY        IN AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPESProtection allowing survival during stress perio...
TREES AS HOTSPOTS OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY      IN AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES     Rapid recolonization and function            ...
Mapping BGBD and function in          agricultural landscapes                         Kiberashi Sentinel Site – Central Ta...
1. Degrading our Natural capital2. Belowground biodiversity and function3. Soil-Based Ecosystem  Functions and Services
ECOSYSTEM SERVICES                                                Goods produced or provided                              ...
SOIL BIOLOGICAL FUNCTION AND THEPROVISION OF ECOSYSTEM SERVICES             Adapted Kibblewhite et al. 2008, Barrios et al...
C TRANSFORMATIONS
GLOBAL DECOMPOSITION EXPERIMENT                                                 Wall et al., 2008Soil fauna expected to en...
NUTRIENT CYCLING                           N-fixation    Improved Fallow Agroforestry Systems              Chipata - Zambi...
Plant traits impact on                  soil biological processesParameter                 Mean† Difference between contra...
Soil Structure maintenance   HIERARCHICAL MODEL OF AGGREGATION                      Solid          2000    m   Pore       ...
Soil Structure maintenance     AGGREGGATE DYNAMIC MODEL                         Adapted from Six et al., 2002
SOIL BIOSTRUCTURE                     MacroinvertebratesECOSYSTEMENGINEERS                  as much as 1000 Mg/ha/yr      ...
GLOMALIN visualized with FITC-coupled  MAb32B11 (on 1-2 mm aggregates)  Photo: S. Wright                         Courtesy ...
SOIL STRUCTURE-SOIL BIOTA                Impact of biological activity on                soil aggregate stability   Soil B...
SOIL STRUCTURE / WATER DYNAMICS            Changes in soil hidrofobicity             Induces soil water repellency       ...
SOIL STRUCTURE: Erosion and C storage                Increased stability of soil aggregates                to water contac...
Spectral (NIRS) signatures  of biogenic structures                          Bulk soil                 PC2                 ...
Biological Population Regulation                                            SOIL FOOD WEBS      Hunt et al. 1987Fatty Acid...
Biological Population Regulation…..less nematodes in prescence of earthworms                  600   No worms              ...
Biological Population Regulation    Direct effect of gut transit on the viability     of eggs in cysts of Heterodera sacch...
Biological Population Regulation        BNF             Striga sp. population> Soil N availability      Parasitic Weed    ...
Biological Population Regulation                               Grown is soils infested Inoculation with AMF               ...
1. Degrading our Natural capital2. Belowground biodiversity and function3. Soil-based Ecosystem Services4. BGBD and Agroec...
AGROECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENTNatural                                           AgroecosystemEcosystem                          ...
TWO PATHWAYS FOR THEBIOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT OF SOIL           FERTILITY  1. Direct BIOLOGICAL control by     inoculation  2....
SOIL BIOTECHNOLOGIES        Practice                 Target•   Nfix Bacteria        •   N2 fixation•   Mycorrhiza         ...
Economic evaluation                             of BGBD: BNFWorth of N2 fixed by grain legumes in developing countries: U...
EARTHWORMS CAN SIGNIFICANTLYINCREASE CROP YIELDS AND REVENUE           Increases:           >200% yield           5500 USD...
Quesungual Slash&Mulch Agroforestry System                 (QSMAS)                                                        ...
Peter MortimerThree areas of focus             ICRAF-Kunming                    Mushroom                    harvesting    ...
Alnus nepalensis: A Green FertilizerN-fixing trees as shade trees• Ecosystem cycling: simple to complex• Multi-tiered appr...
Distribution according to altitude
Simple   Complex
Forest products: sustainable mushroom              harvesting• Over harvesting-unsustainable          -Ophiocordyceps (Cat...
Distribution in Yunnan
Succession of mushroom species                       TIME (YEARS)
“Ecosystem recycling”                    废渣尾矿      粒状磷酸钙                        磷石膏
Soil health is key• Unique opportunity to study soil community  succession• Disturbed; processed and relocated soils• Moni...
Green economy reclamation   Ecological Reclamation
Full cycle
1. Degrading our Natural capital2. Belowground biodiversity and function3. Soil-based Ecosystem Services4. BGBD and Agroec...
PLANTS AS LOCAL INDICATORS OF SOIL             QUALITYCommon name              Scientific name         Botanical family   ...
Soil food web structure - disturbance and recovery                                      H. Ferris ,UC Davis
Effects of minor disturbance                           H. Ferris ,UC Davis
Effects of greater disturbance                             H. Ferris ,UC Davis
Effects of Stress                    H. Ferris ,UC Davis
CHALLENGE: Learning more about     BGBD by looking at AGBD                                        REMOTE SENSINGLocal Indi...
1. Degrading our Natural capital2. Belowground biodiversity and function3. Soil-based Ecosystem Services4. Biological indi...
AGBD/BGBD Interactions            Plant Biodiversity (AGBD)           SOIL HETEROGENEITY                (microniches)     ...
Identifying, Quantifying and MappingHost Spots of Biological Activity and         Ecosystem Services  Temporal and spatial...
Maintaining the right balance betweenProductivity and other Ecosystem Services         PROD.             ES
Developing Soil Health Monitoring      Systems to evaluate  Ecosystem Service provision          performance      Allow ru...
PAYMENT FORECOSYSTEM SERVICES    THANK YOU
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Hidden capital: harnessing belowground biodiversity for sustainable agricultural landscapes

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Hidden capital: harnessing belowground biodiversity for sustainable agricultural landscapes

  1. 1. Hidden Capital: Harnessing Belowground Biodiversity for Sustainable Agricultural Landscapes Edmundo Barrios Peter Mortimer Science Forum 2011, Nairobi
  2. 2. OUTLINE1. Degrading our Natural capital2. Belowground Biodiversity Inside Out3. Soil Based-Ecosystem Functions/Services4. BGBD and Agroecosystem Management5. Biological Indicators of Soil Health ICRAF- china China6. Future Challenges
  3. 3. 1. Degrading our Natural Capital
  4. 4. Earth experiencing DIRECTIONAL CHANGES in many drivers of human-environment processes Steffen et al. 2004 IGBP
  5. 5. MA Findings in a Nutshell Growing demands for food, freshwater, timber, fiber & fuel ReversalLast 50 yrs Efforts Greatest Degradation of demandEcosystem Ecosystems & significantChange by Biodiversity Loss changes in Humans Policies, Net gains in human Institutions, well being & economic Practices development have been possible at the cost of degradation of other ecosystem services Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005
  6. 6. DEFORESTATION AND BIODIVERSITY LOSS BRAZILIAN AMAZON (1988-2008) 3.5 Million ha deforested per year 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0 Nepstad, 2007 WWF-UNFCC
  7. 7. Are we looking at the tip of the iceberg? Aboveground biodiversity Belowground biodiversity
  8. 8. 1. Degrading our Natural capital2. Belowground Biodiversity and Function
  9. 9. BIODIVERSITY IN AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES Planned and managed AGBD aboveground biodiversity Above-ground: planned, managed biodiversity? BGBD Unplanned, unmanaged ? Below-ground: unplanned, unmanaged biodiversity belowground biodiversity ? Diversitas 2005
  10. 10. Limited knowledge about soil biota BLACK BOX APPROACHINPUTS OUTPUTS
  11. 11. +BGBD likely higher than Aboveground Modif. Wall et al 2001, Barrios 2007 EcolEcon
  12. 12. OPENING THE BLACK BOX BGBD SOIL PROCESSESINPUTS OUTPUTS
  13. 13. Soil biota must be selectively studied because:• There is no single method for studying soil biodiversity• It is not possible to study all groups simultaneously
  14. 14. Internationally accepted standardmethods for the inventory of BGBDHandbook with methods for the inventory of BGBD• General guidelines and principles• Sampling strategies• Major functional groups of soil organisms• Land use Moreira et al., 2008
  15. 15. KEY FUNCTIONAL GROUPS OF SOIL BIOTA Maize Legume DecomposersMicro-symbionts e.g. cellulose degradersmycorrhizal N-fixingFungi BacteriaMacrofauna Microregulators C&N transformers(Ecosystem Engineers) e.g.methanogens, – Earthworms Nematodes nitrifiers, denitrifiers – Termites Pests and Diseases e.g. fungi, invertebrates
  16. 16. BACTERIAL DIVERSITY IN SOIL 100 g Soil 5 x 1011 Colonies DNA Extraction on Agar Plates 200 Isolates 66 Cultured Species 13,000 Genetic Species Torsvik et al., 1994
  17. 17. Molecular Approaches ABUNDANCE RICHNESS ACTIVITY Microscopic counts PLFA Respiration Viable plate counts FAME C mineralization MPN N/P mineralization Microbial biomass Soil enzymes ATP FUNCTION Soil Sample FISH In situ PCRRICHNESS/FUNCTION Re-association Hybridization Nucleic Acids DNA RNA Cloning RFLP Microarrays PCR RT-PCR RICHNESS Excise Screening bands Southern Community Fingerprinting Oligonucleotide blot ARDRA ITS-PCR DGGE Probes RAPD T-RFLP REP-PCR Sequencing Probe design Accession PHYLOGENY Sequence database Thies, 2004
  18. 18. BARCODED PYROSEQUENCING From 118 soil samples (4 Sentinel sites in Tanzania) 27% Bacterial & Archeal sequences did not match public databases and thus likely unknownSENTINEL SITES Wall & Fierer, 2011
  19. 19. BUT SOIL ORGANISMS ARE NOT EVERYWHEREEnvironmental influences Disturbance Population processesFine-scale effects ofroots, organic Reproductionparticles, soilaggregates and soil Mortalitymicromorphology 1m Active dispersal CompetitionPlot- to field-scaleeffects of burrowing Predationanimals, within-field Mutualismmoisture gradients,individual plants and 100 mplant communities Passive dispersalLandscape-scalegradients of texture,soil carbon,topography andvegetation systems 1 km Ettema & Wardle, 2002 TrendsEcolEvol
  20. 20. Some effects of trees are mediated throughimpact on soil biota – trees increase abundanceMean density of different soil biota and calculated response ratios Agroforestry Agriculture RR ReferencesSoil macrofauna (indiv m-2) (indiv m-2)Earthworms 54.4 17.6 3.1 1,2,3,4,5,6Beetles 20.9 9.6 2.2 1,2,5Centipedes 2.7 0.5 5.6 1,2,5Termites 90.7 81.0 1.1 1,2,5Ants 23.2 8.6 2.7 1,2,5Soil mesofauna (indiv m-2) (indiv m-2)Collembola 3890.1 2000.7 1.9 7Mites 5100.7 1860.1 2.7 7Soil microfauna (indiv liter-1) (indiv liter-1)Non-parasitic nematodes 2922 1288 2.3 8Parasitic nematodes 203.7 211.5 1 8 Barrios, Sileshi, Shepherd, Sinclair 2011
  21. 21. Some effects of trees are mediated throughimpact on soil biota – trees increase activityGreater soil biological activity (earthworms) near trees but effect greater for some tree species than others Pruned trees Free growing trees Earthworm cast weight Sample with no earthworm casts Pauli et al 2010 Pedobiologia
  22. 22. TREES AS HOTSPOTS OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY IN AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPESProtection allowing survival during stress periods Barrios et al. 2011
  23. 23. TREES AS HOTSPOTS OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY IN AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES Rapid recolonization and function Barrios et al. 2011
  24. 24. Mapping BGBD and function in agricultural landscapes Kiberashi Sentinel Site – Central TanzaniaDeveloping and testing spatially-explicit approaches for soil macrofauna Tree density and cover GRP2-U.Nairobi-GRP4 collaboration
  25. 25. 1. Degrading our Natural capital2. Belowground biodiversity and function3. Soil-Based Ecosystem Functions and Services
  26. 26. ECOSYSTEM SERVICES Goods produced or provided by ecosystemsServices that maintain theconditions for life on earth Benefits obtained from regulation of ecosystem processes Non-material benefits obtained from ecosystems Millennium Ecosystem Assessment , 2005
  27. 27. SOIL BIOLOGICAL FUNCTION AND THEPROVISION OF ECOSYSTEM SERVICES Adapted Kibblewhite et al. 2008, Barrios et al, 2011
  28. 28. C TRANSFORMATIONS
  29. 29. GLOBAL DECOMPOSITION EXPERIMENT Wall et al., 2008Soil fauna expected to enhance decomposition rates in areas becoming hotter and wetter due to Climate Change
  30. 30. NUTRIENT CYCLING N-fixation Improved Fallow Agroforestry Systems Chipata - Zambia Barrios et al., 1997 SSSAJ
  31. 31. Plant traits impact on soil biological processesParameter Mean† Difference between contrasted treatments NAT vs. Nfix vs. (HQ) Low L+PP/N vs. SES vs. SES vs. Trees No Nfix (LQ) High L+PP/N other Trees NATLL+LM‡Dry wt (g kg-1 soil) 1.12 0.26** 0.09 0.10 0.38*** 0.05Amount (mg kg-1 soil) C 302 44.4 10.7 10.0 85.7** 27.0 N 19.0 -1.03 4.40** 2.84* 8.59*** 8.19*** P 1.00 0.30*** 0.14 0.23** 0.54*** 0.15Soil N (mg N kg-1 soil) N-NH4+ 5.6 -0.48 1.54* 3.69*** 3.79*** 3.64*** N-NO3- 8.7 -2.35** 6.16*** 3.38*** 7.31*** 8.45*** Inorg N 14.3 -2.83* 7.69*** 7.07*** 11.1*** 12.1***Aerobic N min(mg N kg-1 soil day-1) 0.37 0.08 0.11* 0.21*** 0.29*** 0.16** Significance levels: * = 0.05, ** = 0.01, *** = 0.001. NAT = natural uncultivated fallow, Nfix = N fixing trees, Nonfix = non N fixing trees, L+PP/N = lignin plus polyphenols/Nitrogen, and SES = planted sesbania fallow. Barrios et al. 1997 SSSAJ
  32. 32. Soil Structure maintenance HIERARCHICAL MODEL OF AGGREGATION Solid 2000 m Pore Root Hyphae 200 m Aggregates or particles Hyphae 20 m Bacteria Packets of clay particles Microbial debris (humic materials) 2 m Clay particles Clay plates 0.2 m Cemment Tisdall & Oades, 1982
  33. 33. Soil Structure maintenance AGGREGGATE DYNAMIC MODEL Adapted from Six et al., 2002
  34. 34. SOIL BIOSTRUCTURE MacroinvertebratesECOSYSTEMENGINEERS as much as 1000 Mg/ha/yr Blanchart et al., 1999Mycorrhizas GLOMALIN >100 m / cc soil Parniske, 2008 Courtesy K.Ritz, NSRI, UK
  35. 35. GLOMALIN visualized with FITC-coupled MAb32B11 (on 1-2 mm aggregates) Photo: S. Wright Courtesy S.Wright, USDA
  36. 36. SOIL STRUCTURE-SOIL BIOTA Impact of biological activity on soil aggregate stability Soil Biota Soil Structure Pore distribution influences the distribution and activity of soil microorganisms Young & Crawford, 2004 Science
  37. 37. SOIL STRUCTURE / WATER DYNAMICS Changes in soil hidrofobicity  Induces soil water repellency Influences soil water fluxes Hallet et al. 2009, Pland &Soil Biota Structure Quantity and Quality of Water
  38. 38. SOIL STRUCTURE: Erosion and C storage Increased stability of soil aggregates to water contact Biota Structure Reduction in C losses Lower soil erosion and greater potential for soil C sequestration Fonte et al., 2010 Geoderma
  39. 39. Spectral (NIRS) signatures of biogenic structures Bulk soil PC2 Carton termite mounds Ant deposits Earthworm casts PC1 Termite sheathings Organo-mineral termite mounds Hedde et al., 2005
  40. 40. Biological Population Regulation SOIL FOOD WEBS Hunt et al. 1987Fatty Acid/13C signature  Feeding strategies & diets in situ Ruess & Chamberlain, 2010
  41. 41. Biological Population Regulation…..less nematodes in prescence of earthworms 600 No worms With worms A Nematodes/pot 500 400 300 B 200 a 100 b 0 6 weeks 12 weeks Lavelle et al., 2004
  42. 42. Biological Population Regulation Direct effect of gut transit on the viability of eggs in cysts of Heterodera sacchari 3 mm Lavelle et al., 2004
  43. 43. Biological Population Regulation BNF Striga sp. population> Soil N availability Parasitic Weed Barrios et al., 1998
  44. 44. Biological Population Regulation Grown is soils infested Inoculation with AMF Striga hermonthica > P availability Reduction in number (30-50%) and biomass (40-63%) de S.hermonthica Lendzemo et al., 2005
  45. 45. 1. Degrading our Natural capital2. Belowground biodiversity and function3. Soil-based Ecosystem Services4. BGBD and AgroecosystemManagement
  46. 46. AGROECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENTNatural AgroecosystemEcosystem Intensification Biodiversity and Ecological functions Agrochemicals Petro energyRESULT: biological capacity for system self-regulation Barrios, 2007 EcolEcon
  47. 47. TWO PATHWAYS FOR THEBIOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT OF SOIL FERTILITY 1. Direct BIOLOGICAL control by inoculation 2. Indirect ECOLOGICAL control by cropping system, plant, organic matter or environmental manipulation.
  48. 48. SOIL BIOTECHNOLOGIES Practice Target• Nfix Bacteria • N2 fixation• Mycorrhiza • Nutrient uptake• Biological control • Plant health• Rhizobacteria • Plant growth• Macrofauna • Soil structure
  49. 49. Economic evaluation of BGBD: BNFWorth of N2 fixed by grain legumes in developing countries: US$ 6.7 billion (Hardarson et al., 2003)Brazil, N-fertilizer saving from inoculated soybean: US$ 2.5 billion (Alves et al. , 2003)SSA N-fertilizer saving from promiscuous soybean: US$ 203 million (Chianu et al., 2010)
  50. 50. EARTHWORMS CAN SIGNIFICANTLYINCREASE CROP YIELDS AND REVENUE Increases: >200% yield 5500 USD/ha Senapati et al. 1996
  51. 51. Quesungual Slash&Mulch Agroforestry System (QSMAS) 80 Slash 70 and Burn 60 2007 – LSD= ns 2006 – LSD= 1.08 Soil loss (t ha-1) 50 2005 – LSD= 6.59 40 30 30% GREATER 20 SOIL MACROFAUNA 10 QSMAS Secondary ABUNDANCE THAN Forest 0SECONDARY FOREST 0.14 LSD0.05= 0.015 Available water content (m3 m-3) QSMAS Sec. 0.12 Forest Slash & Burn 0.10 0.08 0.00 Welchez et al. 2008, Castro et al. 2009, Pauli et al. 2011
  52. 52. Peter MortimerThree areas of focus ICRAF-Kunming Mushroom harvesting Mine restoration Tree fertilizers
  53. 53. Alnus nepalensis: A Green FertilizerN-fixing trees as shade trees• Ecosystem cycling: simple to complex• Multi-tiered approach -soil community analysis -root symbioses -soil nutrition -soil water -crop productivityDoes Alnus influence soil nutrition and soil biodiversity?
  54. 54. Distribution according to altitude
  55. 55. Simple Complex
  56. 56. Forest products: sustainable mushroom harvesting• Over harvesting-unsustainable -Ophiocordyceps (Caterpillar fungus) -Matsutake (50% decline in N Yunnan)• Telephora ganbarjun: -3-6 harvests/season -increase 43% by harvest weight and 86% earnings -net income from T. ganbarjun: US$2 million/year
  57. 57. Distribution in Yunnan
  58. 58. Succession of mushroom species TIME (YEARS)
  59. 59. “Ecosystem recycling” 废渣尾矿 粒状磷酸钙 磷石膏
  60. 60. Soil health is key• Unique opportunity to study soil community succession• Disturbed; processed and relocated soils• Monitor below ground activities and changes: -Soil nutrition -Soil communities• Correlate above ground species with below ground health (or vice versa?)
  61. 61. Green economy reclamation Ecological Reclamation
  62. 62. Full cycle
  63. 63. 1. Degrading our Natural capital2. Belowground biodiversity and function3. Soil-based Ecosystem Services4. BGBD and Agroecosystem Management5. Biological indicators of SoilHealth
  64. 64. PLANTS AS LOCAL INDICATORS OF SOIL QUALITYCommon name Scientific name Botanical family Soil typeHelecho marranero Pteridium aquilinum Pteridiaceae (L)* Poor(Mashiu) “ “ (A)Mangaguasca Braccharis trinervis Compositae (L) Poor(Ma-shuuti) Philippia usambaresnsis Ericaceae (A)Escoba Lanosa Andropogon bicornis Gramineae (L) Poor(Digitaria) Digitaria sp. “ (A)Siempre Viva Commelina difusa Commelinaceae (L) Fertile(Olaiteteyai) Commelina africana “ (A)Papunga Bidens pilosa Compositae (L) Fertile(Enderepenyi) “ “ (A)Hierba de chivo Ageratum conyzoides Compositae (L) Fertile(Olmalive) “ “ (A)*(L = Latin America, A = Africa) Barrios et al., 2006 Geoderma
  65. 65. Soil food web structure - disturbance and recovery H. Ferris ,UC Davis
  66. 66. Effects of minor disturbance H. Ferris ,UC Davis
  67. 67. Effects of greater disturbance H. Ferris ,UC Davis
  68. 68. Effects of Stress H. Ferris ,UC Davis
  69. 69. CHALLENGE: Learning more about BGBD by looking at AGBD REMOTE SENSINGLocal Indicator Plants ‘Hotspots’ of soil Key Selected Selected biological activity Functional Soil Ecosystem Groups Processes Services Adapted from Barrios,2007 EcolEcon
  70. 70. 1. Degrading our Natural capital2. Belowground biodiversity and function3. Soil-based Ecosystem Services4. Biological indicators of Soil Health5. BGBD and Agroecosystem Management6. Future Challenges
  71. 71. AGBD/BGBD Interactions Plant Biodiversity (AGBD) SOIL HETEROGENEITY (microniches) Belowground Biodiversity (BGBD)Is there a critical number of functional groups? Is the presence of certain species essential?
  72. 72. Identifying, Quantifying and MappingHost Spots of Biological Activity and Ecosystem Services Temporal and spatial dynamics as a result of environmental factors in situ Predictive knowledge of Ecosystem Service Provision
  73. 73. Maintaining the right balance betweenProductivity and other Ecosystem Services PROD. ES
  74. 74. Developing Soil Health Monitoring Systems to evaluate Ecosystem Service provision performance Allow rural communities,environmental/agricultural institutions and local government Prepare for negotiations related to Payment for Ecosystem Services
  75. 75. PAYMENT FORECOSYSTEM SERVICES THANK YOU

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