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Gender and participatory research


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Gender and participatory research fellowship

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Gender and participatory research

  1. 1. Gender, participatory and ‘transformative’ approaches to research Ana Maria Paez Valencia - ICRAF August 29 2017
  2. 2. Sex Gender
  3. 3. Key concepts Is the process of being fair to women and men. To ensure fairness, strategies and measures must often be available to compensate for women’s historical and social disadvantages that prevent women and men from otherwise operating on a level playing field. Equity leads to equality. Refers to the equal enjoyment by women, girls, boys and men of rights, opportunities, resources and rewards. A critical aspect of promoting gender equality is the empowerment of women, with a focus on identifying and redressing power imbalances. Gender Equity Gender Equality
  4. 4. Key concepts It concerns the allocation of tasks and responsibilities of women and men at home, at work and in society. Entails intricate relationships of cooperation and exchange The ways men and women share or compete for resources, bargain and have power over each other. They arise from the roles men and women are expected to play and their interactions. Gender division of labour Gender Relations
  5. 5. Key concepts Acknowledge gender differences and inequalities and seek to develop actions that adjust to and often compensate for them No active strategy is used to seek to change the norms and inequities Ignores differences in opportunities and resource allocation for women and men. Can reinforce gender- based discrimination. Often constructed based on the principle of being “fair” by treating everyone the same Gender responsive research Gender blind research
  6. 6. Transformative gender research requires: Critical awareness of gender roles and norms Challenging the distribution of resources and allocation of duties Involving men & boys to encourage collaboration and discourage conflict Increasing women’s bargaining power
  7. 7. Gender Transformative Approaches Integrates efforts to address gender disparities in access and control over resources with complementary actions to address underlying social norms and power relations Household approaches to foster equitable decision-making and relationships Participatory action research (PAR) – to build capacities and build social capital Initiatives to foster behavioural change (e.g. communications) Supporting collective action and networks Adapted from World Fish 2015
  8. 8. Understanding Participatory Research • Participatory research is both a range of methods and an ideological perspective. • Its fundamental principles are that the subjects of the research become involved as partners in the process of the enquiry, and that their knowledge and capabilities are respected and valued. • Enables local people to articulate their views and express their knowledge through describing and analyzing their own situation and problems.
  9. 9. Purpose The purpose can be functional or aim for the empowerment of communities. Representation • Understand make-up of local communities and power relations within them, • Include members of different social groups Levels of participation • Depend on how much power is retained by the researcher • Different typologies representing agendas and relationships between more and less powerful actors Understanding Participatory Research Adapted from Institute of Development Studies - IDS
  10. 10. Levels of Participation People participate by being told what is going to happen or has happened. Unilateral announcement Passive participation Answering questions – extractive No influence in proceedings Findings are not checked or shared Information giving External people define problems/soluti ons based on consultation No share in decision-making Consultation Externally initiated To meet project objectives or to get material incentives Functional part. Joint analysis, action plans Learning processes Interactive part. Initiate independently of externals to change systems Self- motivation Nominal •Often used to give legimitacy to existing plans Instrumental •Means to an end •Use the skills and knowledge to serve a project Representative •Voice in decision- making •Increases sustainability Transformative •Aims at empowerment •Alters structures of exclusion Pretty et al. (1995) White S. (1996)
  11. 11. Key principles of participatory approaches Behavior and attitude • Reflection and self-awareness - Listen, learn and respect • Be prepared to unlearn stereotypes, personal cultural or gender bias • There is an insider’s and an outsider’s perception of behavior • Act as facilitator, not an expert Co-learning • Recognize specific knowledge and perspectives of different groups • Share knowledge, experience and analysis • Combine local and professional knowledge • Participatory research has the power to reveal multiple narratives Action-orientated •Be prepared to take action rather than just collect data
  12. 12. Reflection Exercise • What types of participatory projects have you been involved in? List them and describe them to the group • Do you have other examples of participatory projects and activities that you have heard about? List them and describe them for the group • For each of the examples discuss among the group on the following questions: – What was the purpose? – Who was represented? – What level of participation was achieved, and why? – For the purpose of the project, was that level of representation and participation optimal? – For those groups that were not represented, what obstacles to participation did they face? – What could be done to improve the representation and the level of participation?
  13. 13. Activity: Empathy Mapping • Discuss as a group your ‘ideal research participant’ or who your program is intended to reach. Is this a young man in a rural community? A mother who provides for her large family? Who are some of the most critical voices you and your team need to hear from? • Once you have decided upon a specific person, complete a point-of-view statement that relates to agriculture, climate change and/or gender. Use the following format to structure this statement. E.g.: A young woman in this village must travel farther to get water during drought. A married mother in this village is affected by domestic violence
  14. 14. Activity: Empathy Mapping