Driving factorsi) Droughts of 1968, 1973 and 1984 devastated tree cover but produced critical lessons (discovery and testing ideas (State, NGOs, projects);ii) Increase of population, i.e. pressure on wood and non wood forest products;iii) Institutional and policy changes;Policy reforms informed by field experiences – Maradi Declaration of 1984 – Rural Code Change, 1993 – Forest Code Change, 2004. iv) Local initiatives in ToF management; v) Emergence of champions - Local communities; - Researchers and developers; - Development projects and NGOs, etc.
“Trees became so important to have a goodharvest; trees represent the granary
“We now have many village committees to manage the environment”
Benefits of On-Farm Trees…• Firewood production• Fodder for animals• Increase biodiversity• Habitat for millions of migrating birds• Fruit production• Traditional medicine• Increased soil fertility• Decreased soil erosion• Reduced wind speed• Increased crop yields• Increased water infiltration• Decrease in temperature• Increase in rainall• Inexpensive and easy to adopt• Increase in biomass and carbon• Contribute to mitigating and adapting to climate change
What lessons for Eastern Africa1. Empower local communities to determine theirdevelopment priorities.2. Farmers need exclusive rights to trees – tenure issue.3. Village and inter village institutions for managingregenerated trees.4. Mainstream FMNR into policies and rural developmentprojects.