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Fertigation for coffee through irrigation in Highland region

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Fertigation for coffee through irrigation in Highland region

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Fertigation for coffee through irrigation in Highland region

  1. 1. FERTIGATION FOR COFFEE THROUGH IRRIGATION IN HIGHLAND REGION
  2. 2. Form: N,P,K Quantity of N,P,K Stage:N,P,K Fertigation process CHART OF DEVELOPING PROCESS FOR COFFEE TREES FERTIGATION THROUGH IRRIGATION
  3. 3. Highlan d reg. 90% Southea st region 7% Norther n moutain re. 1% Other prov. 2% 2,39 1,79 1,85 1,05 2,32 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 Tây Nguyên Đông Nam Bộ MN Phía Bắc Các tỉnh khác Cả nước Map: Distribution of coffee tree cultivation areas in Vietnam Create jobs for 2 million rural workers, contribute 3% of GDP (Nestle, 2012) 1. Coffee trees, high value crop! Export of coffee Year Quantity (mil. tons) Value ($ bil.) Source: gso, 2014
  4. 4. Current use of fertilizer for coffee in the Highlands 2 and 3. Constraint in use of fertilizers and irrigation water for Robusta coffee 1,6 mil. tons of comsumer fertilizer;  11.478 bill. vnd for fertilizer annually.  5.812 bill. vnd wasted by unefficient use of fertilizer;  2.637 bill. vnd wasted by application unfollowing recommended. Current use Recommended Comparison Practical quantity of using tho. tons Annual total cost for fertilizers (tho. bil. vnd) Waste due to low efficiency of use (tho.bil.vnd) Waste compared with recommended quantity of fertilizer (tho.bil.vnd)
  5. 5.  Low efficiency use of water, waste of water: 57 % of irrigated water is from ground water and 95% of them is for watering coffee trees, recommended quantity of water for coffee is 450 l/tree, in pactice 1050 l/tree/time. Irrigation methods for coffee trees in Highlands 614.500 hectares of coffee trees need 1.8 bill. m3 of water in dry season!!!; Yaly lake = 1 bill. m3
  6. 6. PO4 - K+ NH4 + NO3- PO4 -K+ NH4 + NO3- 4. Advantages of drip irrigation technique Increasing yield (from 25 - 30 %)  Saving fertilizer (from 25 - 30%) Providing accurate and consistent quantity of fertilizer suitable with demand of each plant in every growing stage. Limiting losses of nutrient, fixed in the ground.  Able to combine multi-fertilizers using irrigation system.  The amount of fertilizer can be adjusted according to the concentration in irrigation solution.  Saving time, labor and energy.  Can be applied on soils with low fertility. H2O H2O H2O H2O
  7. 7. Water requirement of coffee trees during trading period Total water requirement of coffee trees in a year: 1.388 mm (12,6 m3 of water/tree) In which: - From January to April, a coffee tree needs 529 mm - Average rainfall level at this time 113 mm (21 %) - Quantity of water to add 529 – 113 = 416 mm = 4160 m3/ha = 3,78 m3/tree
  8. 8. Soil layer 0 – 30 cm = 62.92 % Distance to root 0 – 100 cm = 87.99 % Distribution of coffee roots in depth of soil profile
  9. 9. Distribution of coffee roots in soil profile = 62.92 %
  10. 10. Installing drip irrigation system in pilot site
  11. 11. Movement of infiltration speed (mm/hour) of soil after measured time (minute) y = 161.7*10-0.56 = 44,54 mm/hour
  12. 12. Water flow and volume of the humidifying zone, soil moisture on basalt soil Formular Volume of humidifying zone Humidity of layer (0 - 20 cm) Humidity of layer (20-40 cm)Width (cm) Depth (cm) No irrigating 0,0 0,0 2,0 19,0 Formular 1 (20 litres) 55,0 38,0 19,6 36,7 Formular 2 (40 litres) 85,0 40,0 20,9 39,7 Formular 3 (60 litres) 105,0 44,0 21,5 39,8
  13. 13. Area of humidifying zone in time and density of drippers After irrigating time Distance of drippers 40 cm/dripper 50 cm/dripper Width (cm) Depth (cm) Width (cm) Depth(cm) 5 hours 40,0 35,0 38,0 32,0 10 hours 85,0 38,0 72,0 35,0
  14. 14. Movement of water in soil in particle composition Sandy soil Clayey soil
  15. 15. Roots distribution in soil in drip line after 6 months
  16. 16. Modeling using sofware HYDRUS 2.0 Movement of water in soil planting coffee using drip irrigation system
  17. 17. Drip irrigation provides enough water for coffee tree to bloom in second year of application
  18. 18. Second test: Identify proper form of fertilizerr using irrigation system for coffee in Dak Lak and cashew nuts in Binh Duong TN2.1: N1 + P1 + K1; TN2.4: N1 + P2 + K1 TN2.2: N2 + P1 + K1; TN2.5: N2 + P2 + K1 TN2.3: N3 + P1+ K1; TN2.6: N3 + P2 + K1 + N1: nitrogen fertilizer using amon sulphate (21 %N) - (NH4)2SO4; N2: Amon nitrate (34 % N) + NH4NO3; N3: Ure (46 % N) - CO(NH2)2 + P1: phosphate fertilizer using Mono potassium phosphate (52 % P2O5 và 34 % K2O) - (KH2PO4); P2: Mono amon phosphate + K1: Kaliclorua (KCl - 60 %K2O)
  19. 19. Drip and sprinkler irrigation system for coffee and cashew nuts Filter Valve Filter Valve Pumping Water Dripper
  20. 20. Sizeoffoliage(cm) Fruitsize(cm) Nutritional needs according to the growth stage of coffee
  21. 21. Physical properties of soil in Dak Lak before trial Soil layer Soil particle composition (%) Clay (<0,0002m m) Limone (0,02- 0,002mm) Fine sand (0,02- 0,2mm) Coarse sand (>0,2mm) 0-20 cm 39.10 20.12 33.79 6.99 20-40 cm 41.46 19.98 33.08 5.48 40-60 cm 45.02 6.76 38.17 10.05 60-100 cm 3.38 55.34 33.6 7.68
  22. 22. Chemical properties of soil in Dak Lak before trial Soil layer pHKCl Total (%) Easily digested (mg/100g) OC N P2O5 K2O P2O5 K2O 0-20 cm 4.92 4.967 0.346 0.376 0.021 17.381 1.005 20-40 cm 5.14 3.473 0.168 0.270 0.013 5.146 0.60 40-60 cm 3.59 1.858 0.120 0.235 0.006 1.501 0.074 60-100 cm 4.38 0.946 0.081 0.187 0.007 1.052 0.055 Low < 0,9 <0,1 <0,06 < 1,0 < 5 < 10,0 Medium 1,0-1,9 0,1-0,2 0,06-0,10 1,0-2,0 5,0 – 10,0 10,0-20,0 High > 2,0 >0,2 >0,10 >2,0 >10,0 >20,0 Evaluating scale
  23. 23. Chemical properties of soil in Dak Lak before trial Soil layer Ca++ Mg++ Na+ CEC BS (%) S Al Fe me/100 g (%) 0-20 cm 9.48 3.92 0.165 23.0 63.35 0.070 18.5 12.50 20-40 cm 8.16 3.71 0.122 19.2 65.57 0.057 14.6 12.93 40-60 cm 1.1 1.01 0.104 9.6 23.83 0.063 15.73 12.79 60-100 cm 0.37 0.29 0.096 6.6 12.29 0.098 16.25 11.85
  24. 24. Nutrient content in leaves through development stages of coffee in Dak Lak Formular N (%) P2O5 (%) K2O (%) L1 L2 L3 L1 L2 L3 L1 L2 L3 CT 1.1 3.080 2.87 2.63 0.130 0.193 0.46 1.18 1.38 CT 1.2 3.29 2.24 0.200 1.06 1.25 CT 1.3 2.80 2.38 0.233 1.10 1.41 CT 1.4 3.07 2.63 0.151 0.86 1.14 CT 1.5 2.94 2.31 0.256 1.29 1.2 CT 1.6 4.13 2.59 0.160 1.00 1.00
  25. 25. Distribution of nitrogen (N total) in soil profile in form of fertigation
  26. 26. Distribution of phosphorus (P - easily digested) in soil profiles at different phosphate forms
  27. 27. Distribution of potassium (K - easily digested) in soil profile at different potash forms
  28. 28. 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 CT1 CT2 CT3 CT4 CT5 CT6 4224 4301 4638 4178 4084 4324 Influences of different types of fertilizers on coffee yield (kg/ha) Cv (%): 7,73 Lsd 0.05: 331,6 TN1: SA + MKP + KCl TN2: AN + MKP + KCl TN3: Ure + MKP + KCl TN4: SA + MAP + KCl TN5: AN + MAP + KCl TN6: Ure + MAP + KCl
  29. 29. 7,1 7,4 7,8 7,6 7,1 7,7 6,6 6,8 7 7,2 7,4 7,6 7,8 8 CT1 CT2 CT3 CT4 CT5 CT6 Number of nodes with fruit/branch (node) 33,5 34 34,5 35 35,5 36 36,5 37 37,5 38 CT1 CT2 CT3 CT4 CT5 CT6 Length of branch (cm) 28,8 29 29,2 29,4 29,6 29,8 30 30,2 30,4 CT1 CT2 CT3 CT4 CT5 CT6 Number of fruit (fruit) 25,8 26 26,4 25,2 25,7 25,2 24,6 24,8 25 25,2 25,4 25,6 25,8 26 26,2 26,4 26,6 CT1 CT2 CT3 CT4 CT5 CT6 Number of growed fruit (fruit Influence of fertilizer forms on growth, development and yield components
  30. 30. 98,5 97,3 101,5 98,7 99,5 100,2 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 CT1 CT2 CT3 CT4 CT5 CT6 Weight (100 g) 99,7 98,5 100,8 99,6 99,8 99,9 97 97,5 98 98,5 99 99,5 100 100,5 101 CT1 CT2 CT3 CT4 CT5 CT6 Volume (100/cm3) 4,47 4,45 4,38 4,45 4,48 4,46 4,32 4,34 4,36 4,38 4,4 4,42 4,44 4,46 4,48 4,5 CT1 CT2 CT3 CT4 CT5 CT6 Proportion of fresh fruit 18,88 19,14 20,31 18,59 18,29 19,28 17 17,5 18 18,5 19 19,5 20 20,5 CT1 CT2 CT3 CT4 CT5 CT6 Fresh fruit yield (ton/ha) Influences of fertilizer forms through irrigation on yield components
  31. 31. Evaluation the limited factors of soil and real situation of degraded soil for Robusta coffee and black pepper in Highland Viet Nam Project belong to Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Donors: 1. Western Highland Agriculture and Forestry Science Institute (VASI) 2. Plant Protection Research Institute (PPRI) 3. Agriculture and Rural Development Department (Dac Lac, Dac Nong, Gia Lai, Lam Dong, Kon Tum provinces). (DARD) Conducting stage : from 2018 - 2021
  32. 32. Content 1: Evaluation real situation of Soil for coffee in 5 provinces (of High land) Focus on Re - cultivation of coffee land; Assessment Soil Fertilities (Bio, Physical and Chemical Soil properties); soil born, Soil disease; Soil nematode,… Content 2: Research relationship between fertilizer schedule, farmer practices, soil propeties and soil desease, nematode,.. ( eg, ... Which factor it ‘s suitable for main and serious desease on coffee land. Conten 3: Research the method to improve soil fertilities (soil pH) and avainable phosphorus for coffee. Conten 4: Research the Intergrated Crop Management for Coffee (Physic, Bio and Chemical methods to improve soil fetilities and reduce soil desease). Content 5: Demonstration for suitable coffee cultivation.
  33. 33. Integrated Crop management for Arabica coffee on slop land in Dien Bien Project from Ministry of Science and Technology (Belong to Rural and Moutanous Program) Donors: 1. Department of Science and Technology Dien Bien 2. Department of Agriculture and Rural Development Dien Bien 3. Centre of Extension Dien Bien. 4. Hai An coffee company (Muong Ang district, Dien Bien province. Conducting stage : from 2018 – 2020 Scale project: Dien Bien, Tuan Giao and Muong Ang districts.
  34. 34.  80 % coffee gardens on slop land, steep slop (from 15 – 30 %) and 60-70% of coffee gardens without shade trees (serious damage frost in cold weather).  Expand new gardens on regions with unsuitable soil for coffee such as erosion, rock , thin layer, poor nutrient soil.  There are not seeding production (seedling nursery) or not good qualities, degradation of varieties, without standart.  Reduce cultivation times (need to recycle only 5 – 7 years), low yield, not good quality, fertilizer not follow guide (less than recommendation), unbalance between organic and inorganic, compost and green manure.  The process of harvesting and processing coffee: harvesting green cherries or over – ripe.
  35. 35. Content 1: Survey, Assessment suitable soil for coffee and evolution limited factors for Arabica coffee in North West Viet Nam (focus on Dien Bien province such as Muong Ang, Tuan Giao, Dien Bien districts) (varieties, seeding, planting on slopping land, mulching, erosion, fertilizer, irrigation, weed and insect and disease on coffee and post harvest,…) Content 2: Selection coffee varieties (TN1), the method for seeding, scale 300.000 seeding each year. Content 3: Establish new planting coffee on steep slop (Shade tree, Design planting holes follow row, across the slop avoid erosion by A – frame, intercropping with fixing nitrogen crop, mulching residue crop, compost fertilizer and irrigation). Content 4: Demonstration of coffee (on matured coffee): Plus Shape tree and overhead irrigation reduce damage frost (cold weather), side pruning, full stunning, bio-fertilizer and compost manure, integrated plant nutrition management (particular iron deficiency on cancerous soil), ICM,…, harvesting method. Content 5: Training and develop guide book for farmer (selection seeding, establish on slop land, making compost from crop residue, ICM, and post havest.
  36. 36. Thank you for your attention!

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