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Cocoa agroforestry: A viable practice for Cocoa landscape rehabilitation in West & Central Africa

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Cocoa agroforestry in West & Central Africa

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Cocoa agroforestry: A viable practice for Cocoa landscape rehabilitation in West & Central Africa

  1. 1. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Cocoa agroforestry: A viable practice for Cocoa landscape rehabilitation in West & Central Africa Christophe Kouamé, Alain Atangana and Lucien Diby World Agroforestry, West and Central Africa Regional Office
  2. 2. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Your Subtitle Here Outline of the talk • Importance of cocoa in West and Central Africa (WCA) • Historical perspective of cocoa in WCA • Challenges for cocoa production in WCA • Agroforestry to mitigate the current cocoa production challenges • Key success factors for scaling-up cocoa agroforestry in WCA • Conclusion
  3. 3. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Your Subtitle Here Importance of cocoa in West & Central Africa • WCA is world’s top producer of cocoa beans https://chocolateclass.wordpress.com/tag/ivory-coast/ • Ivory Coast and Ghana produce over 60% world cocoa
  4. 4. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Cote d’Ivoire • Driving force of the economy • 15% of the country GDP and 39% of exports in Cote d’Ivoire • Cocoa industry employs over 1 million farm families • Provide livelihoods to 28% of the population Importance of cocoa in WCA
  5. 5. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Economic Issues • Low farmer income • Inability to invest in farms/coops • No new planting material/ aging trees • Limited use of fertilizer and pesticides • No quality incentives • Declining cocoa yields and quality Environmental Issues • Deforestation • Loss of biodiversity • Exposure to pests and disease • No more new land available • Declining soil fertility • Declining cocoa yields and quality Social Issue • Low availability of social services • Farmers lack access to health care; many can’t afford school fees • Declining interest in cocoa farming; increased migration to cities • Loss of human capacity for farming • Food and nutrition insecurity • Declining cocoa yields and quality Source: www.fsg.org Cacao production challenges
  6. 6. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees • Cocoa Agroforestry not new in WCA • When introduced in WCA, cocoa was produced in AF systems until late 1970’s (for CI). • Full sun monocropping practices were promoted from then with the creation of new hybrids requiring more sun and fertilizer for intensification. • We have seen the limitations of these practices. Historical perspective of cocoa Agoforestry in West & Central Africa
  7. 7. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Challenges of cocoa production in WCA CSSVD: Cocoa Swollen shoot virus disease Deforestation: Perception of farmers on the effects of deforestation and climate variability (Kouame et al. 2017) 9 46.23 72.02 89.78 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Loss of morals, aesthetics, cultural landscape and heritage values Increased health problems Lower revenues as a result of reduced diversification Reduction of food production Freaquency (%) https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-06-24/ghana-s- main-cocoa-harvest-drops-to-3-year-low-on-disease Ghana’s Main Cocoa Harvest Drops to 3-Year Low on Disease
  8. 8. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Agroforestry for sustainable cocoa production Research evidence of multiple benefits of cocoa- agroforestry systems for resilient farmer incomes, food and nutrition security and sustainable cocoa landscapes Cutting out of CSSVD infected farms Studies in Ghana in 1990s (Vaast pers. comm.) reported 5m vegetative barrier strips around cocoa fields prevented the spread of CSSVD
  9. 9. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees • Farmer perception “Why do you want to plant trees in your cacao farm?” • Cacao • Revenue • Food • 95% farmers are willing to integrated high value trees in their cocoa farms (Smith et al, 2014) Agroforestry to mitigate the current cocoa production / profitability challenges in WCA Allegra et al. 2014
  10. 10. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees •Innovation •Farmers and Extension service •Market and added value •Policy framework Key success factors for scaling-up cocoa Agroforestry in West & Central Africa
  11. 11. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees • Access to appropriate planting material of cocoa and other crops • Access to AF technologies • Research on • Domestication/selection of new AF species compatible with cocoa • Business model of cocoa agroforestry Key success factors for scaling-up cocoa AgroForestry in West & Central Africa Innovation
  12. 12. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees • Strengthen Technical capacity • Support Extension service to transfer innovations to farmers • Local knowledge (manures, social organization, Innovation platforms) Key success factors for scaling-up cocoa AgroForestry in West & Central Africa Skills of Farmers and Extension service
  13. 13. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Your Subtitle Here Key success factors for scaling-up cocoa AgroForestry in West & Central Africa Market and added value • Value creation: Farmers to move from selling dry beans to selling more process products for more added value • Promote market of AF tree products products (e.g. fruits, nuts, spices, milk) from the trees/crops; livestock in the diversified cocoa system
  14. 14. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees • Infrastructure • Road • Community infrastructure (School, health center, water, … • Enable Rural entrepreneurship for youth Key success factors for scaling-up cocoa AgroForestry in West & Central Africa Policy framework • Land tenure • Tree tenure • Access to finance (loans, subsidies for farmers) to regenerate theirs farms
  15. 15. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees World Agroforestry (ICRAF), United Nations Avenue, Gigiri, P.O Box 30677-00100, Nairobi, Kenya Phone: +254 20 722 4000 Fax: +254 20 722 4001 Email: icraf@cigar.org Website: www.worldagroforestry.org Thank you! c.kouame@cigar.org ICRAF West and Central Africa

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