Climate change and water security: Impacting decision-making processes on water management in the Equatorial Nile Basin?
Climate change and watersecurity: Impacting decision-making processes on watermanagement in the EquatorialNile Basin?Nina Hissen, PhD Researcher
Outline• Research Interest• Water Management in the Nile Basin• Embedded Case Study: The Equatorial Nile and the Mara River Basin• Theoretical Concepts• Research Questions and Methods• Preliminary Results• Research Limitations• Conclusions and Outlook
Research Interest• Unravel decision-making processes of transboundary water resources management• Implications of water security and climate change for water management in the Nile Basin• Improve climate change adaptation of water resources management
Water management in the Nile Basin Owen Falls Dam, Jinja, UG Photo by Malcolm McCrow
The Equatorial Nile Basin and Mara River BasinLake Victoria, Kampala
Lake Victoria Basin, (World Resources Institute,2002)
Theoretical concepts• (Environmental) Governance (Biermann et al. 2009) ▫ Integrated system of formal and informal institutions ▫ Multiple levels of institutions relevant for decision- making (local, national, international) ▫ Constructivist approach: Actors and institutional structure mutually influence each other and decision-making
Theoretical Concepts• Climate Change Discourse (CCD) ( Hulme, 2009) ▫ “specific ensemble of ideas, concepts and categorization that are produced, reproduced and transformed in a particular set of practices and through which meaning is given to physical and social realities” (Hajer, 1995) ▫ Physical impacts of climate change vs. perceptions of climate change ▫ Relevance of policy discourses for political decision- making: CC on regional policy agendas: e.g. NAPAs, CC strategies Interest in climate adaptation funds
Theoretical Concepts• Water security (Grey and Sadoff, 2007) ▫ Availability ▫ Quantity and Quality of water ▫ Water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems, production ▫ Acceptable water-related risks (people, environment, economies)• Securitization of water resources (Brauch 2009; Buznan et al 1998) ▫ Water insecurity results in the securitization of the resource i.e. making water a matter of national
Research Questionsand Methods Masai Mara Reserve, Kenya
What is the relationship between water governance and water management decisions in the EquatorialNile Basin (EQNB) in the context of water securitization and climate change?! $%"# How are emerging discourses around water security and climate change taking shape in the EQNB?! $&"# How does the "# How could water ! "# How does the management interaction between discourse on water decisions relate to transboundary and security and water security in national institutions climate change the context of shape water influence water delivering management decisions management adaptation to in the EQNB?! decisions?! climate change?!
(Preliminary)Empirical Results Mara Basin Office, Mulot
Climate Change Discourse• Dominant policy discourse presents climate change as: ▫ CC impacts are already felt today ▫ Therefore climate change adaptation and mitigating future impacts is essential ▫ Most water managers did not distinguish between adaptation and mitigation• Strong link to Green Growth Paradigm ▫ Tension between sustainable development and optimal climate change adaptation/mitigation ▫ Development paradigm is dominant over climate change adaptation
Climate Change Policy• Large gap between discourse on climate change and policy implementation ▫ Climate change adaptation is still in its infancy ▫ Regional differences in development and implemenation of climate policies ▫ Climate change financing as a key concern ▫ Climate change policies a mere lip service?
CCD and water management in theNile• Climate Change as a proxy to access funds ▫ Current state of the Nile Basin Initiative: future uncertain ▫ Main funding from the World Bank ran out this year ▫ Hightened talk about climate change adaptation and mitigation among NBI officials ▫ Focus on accessing climate change adaptation funds
Actors’ map of Mara River Basin Civil society WRUAs ProMara (TZ) CARE Int. WRUAs (KE) GLOWS WWF Sustainable WRMPrivate Tourism water A Statesector industry management USAID Steering NELSAP Committee Mining Industry Key actors Basin Large-scale LVBC Committee farmers (TZ) Primary actors Secondary actors 12.09.2012
Research Limitations• The results are so far only preliminary. A thourough analysis of the data needs to follow.• Interviews were conducted mainly with experts and policy makers. Hence there is a bias in the research towards the policy level.• Very small N for the Q-sort based interviews. ▫ Difficult to motivate interviewees to participate.• The discourse analyzed is a highly specialized discourse amongst water experts, rather than the broad public climate change discourse in the region.
Conclusions• Gap between climate change experts and water management experts• Water managers know about climate change but often the causal links are not clear• This poses a threat to successful climate change adaptation of water resources• Despite that, no evidence for climate change increasing political conflict over water in the EQNB!
References• Biermann, F., Betsill, M.M., Gupta, J., Kanie, N., Lebel, L., Liverman, D., Schroeder, H. and Siebenhüner, B. 2009: Earth System Governance: People, Places and the Planet. Science and Implementation of the Earth System Governance Project. Earth System Governance Project Report, Bonn: IHDP.• Brauch, H.G. 2009: Securitizing Global Environmental Change. In Brauch, H.G., Oswald Spring, Ú., Grin, J., Mesjasz, C., Kameri-Mbote, P., Behera, N.C., Chourou, B. and Krummenacher, H., editors, Facing Global Envrionmental Change. Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concepts, Berlin, Heidelberg, 65-102.• Buznan, B., Wæver, O. and de Wilde, J. 1998: Security: A New Framework for Analysis. London.• Grey, D. and Sadoff, C.W. 2007: Sink or Swim? Water security for growth or development. Water Policy 9, 545-571.• Hajer, M. A. 1995: The Politics of Environmental Discourse: Ecological Modernization and the Policy Process• Hulme, M. 2009: Why we disagree about climate change. Understanding controversey, inaction and opportunity. Cambridge.• World Bank 2000: Nile River Basin Map.