Climate Action for Poverty Reduction


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Climate Action for Poverty Reduction Challenges and Opportunities

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  • Climate Action for Poverty Reduction

    1. 1. Climate Action for Poverty Reduction Challenges and Opportunities Jonathan Haskett
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Climate change is happening faster and with more intensity than previously thought </li></ul><ul><li>Rural smallholders in the developing world are one of the most at risk populations </li></ul><ul><li>Need to address climate change and climate change adapation </li></ul>
    3. 3. Opportunity to Combine Benefits <ul><li>Actions that help to mitigate climate change can also: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help communities become more climate resiliant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase productivity and enhance food security for smallholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help conserve biodiversity </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Conserving and Maintaining Terrestrial Carbon Stocks <ul><li>Land use carbon emissions: deforestation, loss of peatlands, soil erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Converting landscapes from a trajectory of carbon loss to one of carbon gain is an essential component of a successful climate strategy. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Development Benefits <ul><li>Increasing soil organic carbon increases fertility, water holding capacity, fertilizer use efficiency and resistance to erosion making soil more productive. </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporating agroforestry, community forestry and sustainable forest management can increase economic diversity, productivity and stability. </li></ul><ul><li>These benefits are essential to smallholder subsistence agriculture and are also adaptive strategies in face of climate change. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Biodiversity <ul><li>Conserving natural forests and reducing use pressure on protected areas helps to conserve biodiversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing biodiversity and landscape connectivity on mixed-use landscapes through agroforestry and community forestry can also enhance biodiversity. </li></ul>
    7. 7. A Proposed Integrative Concept <ul><li>Putting all of these goals together combines reducing deforestation and reclaiming and enhancing agricultural and degraded landscapes. </li></ul><ul><li>The goal is to maintain and increase the carbon stocks on the landscape through a trajectory of sustainable development. </li></ul>
    8. 8. van Noordwijk (ICRAF ,2009) Integrity of accounting system based on AFOLU guidelines Respect of rights of indigenous people, free & prior informed consent National sovereignty within differentiated global responsibility Adaptive sustainable live- lihoods and climate resilience R E Peat R E D D R E A G G R e S t o c k
    9. 9. World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Actitivies <ul><li>Development of agroforestry systems that combine livelihood, climate change adaptation / resilliance, biodiversity and climate change mitigation benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>Development of measurement and monitoring methods for forested, mixed use and agricultural landscapes. </li></ul><ul><li>Community Engagement Methods – Landcare </li></ul><ul><li>Technical assistance for smallholder land use carbon projects. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Agroforestry: a Key Component <ul><li>Adding trees to a landscape provides a unique nexus of opportunities to: </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the carbon stocks </li></ul><ul><li>Increase and diversify production </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate farm systems (fertilization, forage, cropping) </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance climate change resliance (drought hardy trees, increases in soil organic matter) </li></ul>
    11. 11. Measurement and Monitoring <ul><li>Measurement and monitoring of terrestrial carbon stocks is essential to recognizing their contribution as a global environmental good </li></ul><ul><li>ICRAF, WWF, Michigan State University and CARE are working together developing an integrated landscape carbon measurement system that combines remote sensing and community based ground measurements. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Landcare <ul><li>Landcare – a community-based approach to land stewardship linking farmers with the broader community, to seek partnerships in NRM and influence policy </li></ul><ul><li>Originated in Australia applied in the Philippines and being extended to Africa and other parts of the developing world </li></ul><ul><li>Brings together smallholders, non-governmental organizations, academe, the business sector, and governments at various levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Community engagement is a key to equity, permanence and sustainability for smallholder land use carbon projects </li></ul>
    13. 13. Technical Assistance <ul><li>Helping to combine multiple benefits in smallholder land use carbon projects through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection of appropriate adapted tree species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon measurement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market chain analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community capacity building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to quality germplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender equity and pro-poor focus </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. The Climate, Community & Biodiversity Standards <ul><li>Objective set of rigorous criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Independent 3rd party validation </li></ul><ul><li>Project documents and audit reports posted on web </li></ul><ul><li>21-day public review </li></ul><ul><li>Verification every 5 years </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge project proponents to demonstrate multiple benefits and transparent, equitable processes </li></ul><ul><li>Provide objective and structured information to interested parties </li></ul><ul><li>Define broadly supported quality benchmark </li></ul><ul><li>Promote transparency, equity, accountability, credibility </li></ul>The Climate, Community & Biodiversity Standards
    15. 15. New Second Edition <ul><li>Must ensure net benefits for all community groups </li></ul><ul><li>Free, prior and informed consent required </li></ul><ul><li>Must establish legal ownership of carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Must enhance or maintain high conservation values </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria for REDD strengthened </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Gold Level’ reserved for exceptional benefits </li></ul><ul><li>- high priority sites for biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>- ‘pro-poor’ </li></ul><ul><li>- climate change adaptation </li></ul>
    16. 16. Progress on adoption of CCB Standards <ul><ul><li>23 projects posted for public comment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 projects completed validation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100+ projects planning to use CCB Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>covers all land-based carbon: afforestation/reforestation, REDD, forest management, agroforestry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used for multiple benefits in combination with carbon accounting standard (VCS, CDM etc) </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. In Sum <ul><li>If we are going to successfully address on coming climate change, terrestrial carbon needs to be part of the effort. It is only just that we get the most benefit that we can for sustainable development and biodiversity that we can. </li></ul>