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Developing a sustainable charcoal sector in sub-Saharan Africa


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Presentation by Henry Neufeldt at Our Common Future Under Climate Change. 8 July 2015.
Co-authored by Phil Dobie (World Agroforestry Centre), Miyuki Iiyama (World Agroforestry Centre) and Klas Sander (World Bank)

Published in: Environment
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Developing a sustainable charcoal sector in sub-Saharan Africa

  1. 1. DEVELOPING  A  SUSTAINABLE  CHARCOAL   SECTOR  IN  SUB-­‐SAHARAN  AFRICA   Our  Common  Future  Under  Climate  Change   7-­‐10  July  –  Paris   2218  –  Land-­‐based  MiMgaMon:  Agriculture,  Forests,  Bioenergy   UNESCO  Fontenoy  –  Room  IX  –  8  July  2015  –  16.30-­‐18.00   Henry  Neufeldt1,  Phil  Dobie1,  Miyuki  Iiyama1,  Klas  Sander2   1  World  Agroforestry  Centre  (ICRAF)   2  World  Bank  
  2. 2. Percent  of  populaIon  dependent  on   solid  biofuels  in  Africa  and  Asia  
  3. 3. Francis  Hannaway   WWF   In  Africa  80%  of  energy  is  derived   from  firewood  and  charcoal   Wood  fuels   Charcoal   Hofstad  et  al  2009   Hofstad  et  al  2009   Million  tons   Million  m3  
  4. 4. Sustainable   charcoal    
  5. 5. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 forestareasrequiredtomeet charcoaldemand(000ha/year) kiln @10% kiln @10% + improved stove kiln @10% + improved stove + AF kiln @10→@30% kiln @10→@30% + improved stove kiln @10→@30% + improved stove + AF
  6. 6. ¢  US$8b  revenue  +7m  employment  in  2007;  esImated  US$12b+12m  by  2030   ¢  complex  and  mulI-­‐layered  “command  and  control”-­‐type  regulatory  contexts,   which  result  in  an  unclear  framework  for  stakeholders  operaIng  in  the  sector     Figure 17: Marketing channels for charcoal in Kenya Production Site (wood and Charcoal) Middlemen Households Road Side Wholesalers Retailers KFS Police Local Authorities   KFS  (2013)     0-­‐3%   ~16%   20~22%   ~3%   ~20%   ~2%   20-­‐30%   Nairobi,  Kenya   Ya]a,  Kenya   Mutomo,  Kenya   Kerio,  Kenya   G  Ndegwa   Somalia   Export  to  Gulf     Charcoal  is  among  the  most  commercialized  resources  in  SSA;  many  stakeholders   are  compeMng  for  profit  margins  at  different  stages  of  the  value  chain  from  rural   supply  centres  to  urban  demand  centres  
  7. 7. Workshop  recommendaIons  for  Cooking  Systems   A  major  recommendaIon  of  the  workshop  is  to  recognize   that  improving  the  cooking  of  food  using  wood-­‐based  fuels   in  Africa  requires  an  in-­‐depth  understanding  of  the  full   produc;on-­‐to-­‐use  system,  and  investments  in   improvement  should  be  based  on  this  principle.  
  8. 8. Workshop  recommendaIons  for  Cooking  Systems   •  Developing  advocacy  tools  and  publicity  materials  that  accurately  portray  the   role  of  firewood  and  charcoal  in  Africa  today   •  PresenIng  available  knowledge  evidence  to  show  that  poor  people  should  not   be  blamed  for  deforestaMon  when  they  collect  firewood,     •  and  that  charcoal  can  be  produced,  sold  and  used  sustainably   •  Providing  objecMve  comparisons  of  advantages  and  disadvantages  of  different   energy  systems  in  naIonal  and  regional  contexts   A  fundamental  challenge  for  biomass  cooking  systems  is  to   rehabilitate  the  reputaMon  of  firewood  and  charcoal  as  appropriate   fuels  for  Africa  at  this  Ime.    This  should  be  done  by:  
  9. 9. Workshop  recommendaIons  for  Cooking  Systems   •  Reviewing  the  knowledge  of  fuel  wood  producMon  chains   •  Assessing  the  current  status  of  availability  of  firewood  from  different  sources   within  reasonable  reach  of  households  and  developing  plans  to  increase  supply   where  it  is  lacking   •  Reviewing  the  knowledge  of  charcoal  value  chains  and  developing  proposals  to   introduce  improvements   •  Carrying  out  sustainability  research  to  becer  model  and  understand  the   dynamics  of  wood  extracMon,  processing,  trade  and  use  in  order  to  provide   data  to  advise  policy  decisions   While  elements  of  the  cooking  system  have  been  extensively  studied,   and  very  good  informaIon  is  available,  much  of  the  exisMng  evidence   has  not  been  collated  and  there  has  been  a  lack  of  evidence-­‐based   decision-­‐making  relaMng  to  tree-­‐based  bioenergy.    Further  research   is  needed  along  with  the  development  of  becer  decision  tools.  This   should  be  done  in  specific  countries  by:  
  10. 10. Workshop  recommendaIons  for  Cooking  Systems   •  Carrying  out  policy  research  to  ensure  that  policies  can  be  improved  and   harmonized   •  Preparing  knowledge-­‐based  materials  for  policy  makers  and  engage  in  debates   with  them   •  IntegraMng  firewood  and  charcoal  into  naMonal  energy  policy  processes  in   order  to  develop  appropriate  policies  and  legislaIon   •  IntegraMng  firewood  and  charcoal  into  land  use  planning  processes  at  naIonal   and  local  (landscape)  levels   •  PromoMng  charcoal  to  policy-­‐makers  as  a  mulM-­‐million  dollar  business  that   countries  and  districts  can  derive  income  from   •  Reforming  policies  and  sedng  standards   There  is  a  challenge  to  include  firewood  and  charcoal  into  naMonal   energy  policy  processes.    This  should  be  addressed  by:  
  11. 11. Workshop  recommendaIons  for  Cooking  Systems   •  Developing  parMcipatory  naMonal  and  local  plans  to  ensure  a  sustainable   supply  of  wood  through  agroforestry,  woodlots  or  natural  regeneraMon   •  Ensuring  that  the  most  suitable  tree  species  are  made  available  based  on   knowledge  of  their  physical  properIes,  lack  of  toxicity  and  local  preferences   •  Establishing  systems  to  grow  and  disseminate  excellent  planMng  materials   •  Carrying  out  local  parIcipatory  trials  of  improved  charcoal  producMon  methods   •  Ensuring  that  improvements  are  equitable   •  Introducing  enhanced  cooking  techniques,  including  clean  cook  stoves,  in  a   manner  that  integrates  their  use  into  a  full  cooking  system  including  fuel  quality,   kitchen  management  and  cooking  space  venMlaMon   There  is  a  need  to  improve  technology  throughout  the  cooking   system.    This  should  be  done  in  a  manner  that  fully  respects  social   issues  by:  
  12. 12. Workshop  recommendaIons  for  Cooking  Systems   •  Applying  parMcipatory  processes  throughout  the  cooking  systems  development   process  to  idenIfy  challenges  and  soluIons   •  Reviewing  energy  taxaMon  policies  to  ensure  that  woody  biomass  is  not  unfairly   treated   •  Encouraging  the  involvement  of  the  private  sector  by  removing  obstacles  to   their  parMcipaMon  (e.g.  the  distorIons  of  current  charcoal  value  chains)   There  is  a  need  for  incenMves  to  reform  the  use  of  firewood  and   charcoal.    This  should  include:  
  13. 13. Overall  Workshop  Conclusions   Tree-­‐based  bioenergy  systems,  ranging  from  fuelwood  and   charcoal  to  liquid  biofuels  and  power  generaIon:     •  offer  great  opportuniMes  for  sustainable  green  growth   pathways  in  sub-­‐Saharan  Africa,     •  with  sustainable  forest  management  and  forest  and   landscape  restoraMon.       •  What  is  needed  to  effecIvely  promote  them  is  a  shif  in   percepMon  to  rehabilitate  their  negaMve  image,     •  a  holisMc  approach  that  considers  the  full  producMon  to  end-­‐ user  cycle,     •  collaboraMon  of  relevant  stakeholders  to  overcome   investment  barriers  and     •  poliMcal  coordinaMon  at  subnaMonal,  naMonal  and  regional   levels.  
  14. 14. Thanks  for  a  future