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Bioenergy for power generation— oliver frith inbar-beijing-cbd-cop12


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Mr. Oliver Frith is the Acting Programme Director at the International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR) and based in Beijing, China. He has an MSc in Environmental Change and Management from Oxford University and an MA in Natural Sciences from Cambridge. He has worked at INBAR’s Beijing Headquarters for over 7 years, managing and advising livelihood development and environmental projects in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.

Published in: Environment
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Bioenergy for power generation— oliver frith inbar-beijing-cbd-cop12

  1. 1. Biomass for Power Generation: The case for supporting biodiversity Mr. Oliver Frith, Acting Director of Programme CoP12 CBD, Pyeongchang, S. Korea, October 9th 2014
  2. 2. Contents 1. Why bioenergy value chains matter for biodiversity 2. Bioenergy for Electricity Generation – What is it? 3. Examples of bamboo biomass electricity generation projects and their potential for supporting biodiversity 4. Conclusions: Pathways to Innovation
  3. 3. Why Bioenergy Value Chains Matter • Massive & Growing Demand: 2.6 billion reliant on traditional biomass and increased modern uses (IEA 2013) • Avoided Deforestation & degradation: Charcoal production – 14% deforestation in SSA 2009 (Chidumayo & Gumbo, 2013) • CC Mitigation & Ecosystem protection: Sustainable biomass could reduce SSA GHG emissions 36% (Bailis, R. et al. 2005) • Restoring Degraded Lands: non-food producing lands used for biomass • Managing tradeoffs: ending energy poverty – protecting biodiversity HH Charcoal Collection in India Source: INBAR 2014
  4. 4. The Growing Demand for Bioenergy Source: IEA 2012
  5. 5. Sustainable Bioenergy – contributing to REDD+ Earthmound charcoal kilns Source: SNV 2014 Case Study of DRC • >90% pop. rely on biomass energy; in Kinshasa alone 4.7 million m3 of wood consumed, 300,000 people employed, US$150 million generated - 3Xs value formal annual timber exports (MECNT 2009) • Extraction rates exceed regrowth rates – DRC has adopted sustainable wood fuel sector goals in GHG emissions targets • 30-year target: reduce 30 million tCO2e/year via improved cooking stoves & 419 million tCO2e/ year via substitution of wood- fuel by electricity = 15% total of national targets
  6. 6. Halting Climate Change & Biodiversity Loss Source: IPCC 2007
  7. 7. Making degraded lands productive again • Global assessment shows 2 billion Ha of deforested and degraded land available for restoration – Bonn Challenge committed to restore 150 million Ha by 2020 • 1.3 billion people live without access to electricity (IEA 2013) – huge market • Farmers = Food + Energy • Bamboo ideally placed - e.g. Allahabad, 2007 Alcan Prize for Sustainable Development, rehabilitated tens of thousands Ha of used brickfields (pic. Above)
  8. 8. Managing Tradeoffs – The Pellet Trade
  9. 9. Power Gen: Biomass Combustion & Gasification Combustion • highly suitable for wood processing industries/sawmills, district heating systems, & high process heat/cooling demand industries • Systems commercially viable provided heat & power both used & utilisation rates exceed 60% • Requires long-term biomass supply contracts • Usually for larger scale operations above 100kw capacity Gasification • Highly suitable for smaller scale projects (down to roughly 10KW capacity) in remote off-grid areas • Allows range of biomass sources, agri-residue etc… to be used as fuel • If Char by-products used increases financial viability • Transport costs, utilization rates & cost of biomass fuel key factors in determining financial viability
  10. 10. How Biomass Gasification Works Biomass Gasification Phases • Drying: water vapour loss from biomass • Pyrolysis: biomass decomposes into organic vapours, gases, carbon (char) and tars under higher temperatures • Oxidation: Some of the char and tars burn with oxygen from air to give heat and C02 - heat enables other stages • Reduction: water vapour reacts with carbon producing H, CO and CH4. CO2 reacts with carbon to produce more CO Three main types of gasifier: fixed bed updraft and downdraft gasifiers (pictured right) & fluidised bed Cross draft gasifiers. Downdraft gasifier produces cleanest gas Down and Updraft Gasifiers Source: Fulford & Wheldon 2011
  11. 11. Biomass Energy Vs. Solar Energy Biomass • Generates income • Enhances resilience • Benefits the land • Powers HH • Powers enterprises • Local employment generation • Enhanced food & water security • No batteries. Optional since 24x7 power (although requires maintenance) Solar • Enhances expenditure • Enhances indebtedness • No benefit to the land • Lights HH • None that need power • Limited employment generation • No • Recurrent expenditure on batteries
  12. 12. Background The Case for Bamboo Biomass Fuel Bamboo in Madagascar (↑) & Ethiopia (↓) Source: INBAR 2014 • Approx. 1.2kg of biomass produces 1 kwh • One bamboo pole = electric power demand 1 rural household for a month • Perennial crop, takes roughly 4 years to mature after planting; provides year-round green cover • Indigenous resource available throughout tropics and sub-tropics in Asia, Africa, and the Americas • Mature bamboo resources in rainfed system produce min. yields 5-10 tonnes/hectare/yr. up to approx. 35-40 tonnes. Irrigated plantations – 100 tonnes/ha/yr
  13. 13. Case Study: 20kw Biomass Gasifier (India) Ownership Current: 100% CIBART NGO Future (indicative): 30% CIBART 30% Women 30% Professionals 10% Technical support Cash benefit (US$) biomass : power 1 day: 12 : 80 1 month: 360 : 2400 1 year: 4380 : 29200 Charcoal produced: 5%: $ 4,380 25%: $ 21,900 Unit cost: $ 21,942 Broad usage of power (indicative) 0500-0900: HH power 0900-1700: Enterprises 1700-2100: HH power 2100-0500: Water pumping Other benefits • Value added production from enterprises e.g. HHC, flour-mill, etc. • Quality of life – power to 160-320 HH (8h basis) • Water supply – farms, homes
  14. 14. Income Generation in India Scenario 14.00 12.00 10.00 8.00 6.00 4.00 2.00 0.00 10 20 30 40 Yield in tons/ha UD$/day Biomass rate $16.67/ton Biomass rate $25.00/ton Biomass rate $33.33/ton Biomass rate $41.67/ton Domestic power rate ($0.08/kWh) Charcoal at $333/ton Industrial power rate ($0.14/kWh) Not difficult to earn above poverty line from agri-residues & growing bamboo on uncultivated land
  15. 15. Case Study: CPI Ltd., Indonesia, 400kwe Plant Background PPP partnership for Bangli Regency Source: CPI ltd., 2014
  16. 16. Conclusions: Pathway to Innovation 1. Sustainable biomass energy value chains can play a key role in meeting a number of CBD Achi, UNFCCC REDD+ and Rio+20 targets. 1. Proven technologies are in place – upscaling requires: 1. Develop & implement legal & tax frameworks across value chain to formalize sector & build upon pro-benefits, while meeting environmental objectives 2. Improve coordination between communities, governments, private sector, donor, & financial agencies to raise awareness and reach untapped energy poor markets 3. Develop energy policies for distributed generation targeting energy poor, as well as financing and monetary policy to speed up adoption