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An exploration of evergreen agriculture approaches for scaling up in East Africa

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By Jonathan Muriuki

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An exploration of evergreen agriculture approaches for scaling up in East Africa

  1. 1. An exploration of evergreen agriculture approaches for scaling up in East Africa Jonathan Muriuki ICRAF, Nairobi
  2. 2. Synopsis The regional context The evergreen agriculture idea The project objectives Results from capacity building objective in Machakos, Kenya Conclusion
  3. 3. HUMID HIGHLANDS High Pop. Density (Home to > 50 % of region’s pop) Supply > 50 % of regions staple & cash crops Important water towers Rainfed & irrigated agriculture Major crops: Maize, potato, banana, wheat, coffee, tea, arrow roots DRYLANDS 81 % of total land mass Significant in Kenya (75 %); Tanzania & Ethiopia (50 %) Pastoralism / Agro- pastoralism Irrigated and rainfed agriculture Major crops: Sorghum, millet & cassava, cotton Eastern Africa Main features
  4. 4. 2003 Crop Yields (MT/ha) – Africa, and Global Crop AFRICA GLO BAL Maize 1.61 4.47 Rice 1.87 3.84 Sorghum 0.88 1.30 Millet 0.70 0.82 Sweet Potatoes 4.32 13.49 Cassava 8.83 10.76 Beans 0.62 0.70 Groundnuts 0.86 1.35 Bananas 6.59 15.25 4 (Source: Tittonell, 2013)
  5. 5. What is Evergreen Agriculture? A form of more intensive farming that integrates trees with annual crops, maintaining a green cover on the land throughout the year. Evergreen farming systems are ‘double- story’ systems that feature both perennial and annual species (food crops and trees).
  6. 6. Project objectives 1. To identify the critical drivers of adoption of evergreen agriculture technologies and practices in sub Saharan Africa (baseline study) 2. To establish a robust infrastructure for the multiplication and supply of improved tree seed/seedling system and its integration with livestock production systems 3. Build the capacity of smallholder farmers in accessing evergreen agriculture practises, and supporting services (e.g technologies, credit and markets), 4. Generate, package and disseminate knowledge to various categories of smallholder farmers, partners and institutions
  7. 7. Meru County, Kenya Machakos County, Kenya Mwanga District, TanzaniaMbarali District, Tanzania Bugesera District, Rwanda Project sites Lesotho – only baseline studies done in two sites – north and south of the country
  8. 8. Build the capacity of smallholder farmers in accessing evergreen agriculture practises in Machakos  Establishment of demonstration plots at farmers training centre and in each of 40 farmer groups – three tree species tested with three alley spacings and maize-legume intercrop  Training of farmers through four different approaches – government extension, FFS through World Vision, Landcare – through KENDAT and Volunteer farmer trainers
  9. 9. Maize ATC Machakos SR2013
  10. 10. More moisture retention when CA practiced with shrubs 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Callat1.5 Callat3 Callat4.5 Notrees Glirat1.5 Glirat3 Glirat4.5 P.peasat1.5 P.peasat3 P.peasat4.5 Treatment CoA SR13 LR14 SR14 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Callat1.5 Callat3 Callat4.5 Notrees Glirat1.5 Glirat3 Glirat4.5 P.peasat 1.5 P.peasat3 P.peasat 4.5 Treatment CA SR13 LR14 SR14 Moisture%vol-TillMoisture%vol–Notill
  11. 11. Tree growth and production LR2014
  12. 12. Farm tree diversity as proxy for extension approach effectiveness for CAWT Farmers under Landcare had more diversity of tree species and farm enterprises
  13. 13. Conclusion • CA with trees generated benefits of higher maize yields (no difference in legume yields) and increased soil water storage hence can narrow yield gaps especially useful for moisture stressed lands • Very close spacing (below 3m) yielded high shrub biomass and stored more moisture but depressed yields – while best performance was by Calliandra calothyrsus spaced at 3m • Tree biomass can serve as fodder and fuelwood and staking for high value crops such as climbing beans, tomatoes etc • Extension Approaches that build social capital in communities and build farmers’ capacity to diagnose NRM issues such as Landcare may be more appropriate in scaling up INRM
  14. 14. Thank you for Listening Creating an Evergreen Agriculture in Eastern Africa

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