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Agroforestry systems for restoration in Brazil: reconciling social and ecological functions to upsca


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Restoration through Agroforestry Systems

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Agroforestry systems for restoration in Brazil: reconciling social and ecological functions to upsca

  1. 1. Agroforestry systems for restoration in Brazil: reconciling social and ecological functions to upscale Andrew Miccolis ICRAF Brazil COP 25 Madrid December 12, 2019
  2. 2. Acknowledgements
  3. 3. Objetives of restoring environmentally sensitive areas – social and ecological functions (Brazilian Forest Code) • Maintenance of the original ecosystem structure and functions • Biodiversity (habitat, migratory corridors, gene flow) • Soil structure and fertility, nutrient cycling • Water infiltration/water recharge, erosion control • Buffer strips • Social and economic functions (family farming) Restoration through Agroforestry Systems • Perform these functions • can render restoration economically feasible • Include humans in restoration and conservation • accelerate natural succession (through management) • Improve farmer livelihoods and quality of life Thus, human beings need to be included in restoration and can contribute to advancing succession of species
  4. 4. Appropriate management accelerates succession and optimizes resources
  5. 5. Ok….but… • Which systems balance trade-offs between social and environmental functions, between costs and benefits? • How to balance these trade-offs in practice?
  6. 6. Passive methods Active methods Cost/ ha (R$) 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 Costs of ecological restoration using different methods Source: Miccolis et al 2019, in prep
  7. 7. Climate Change – MITIGATION • High C sequestration potential • Increases organic soil carbon • Lower emissions Vs slash and burn or monocultures with chemical inputs – ADAPTATION • Modifies microclimate: protects sensitive crops, windbreak, lower temp and higher humidity • Increases resilience (plants and farmers), extends harvest season, alleviates extreme events (prolonged droughts, floods) (Tito et al., 2011; Silva et al., 2011; Nunes & Vivan, 2011; Jacobi et al., 2013; Torres et al., 2014; Fernandes et al., 2014; Marinho, 2014)
  8. 8. Carbon sequestration Source: Mbow. 2012
  9. 9. Social and Economic Benefits • Increases food security and sovereignty (diversity, quality, independence) • Reduces risks and vulnerabilities to shocks and stresses – economic risks of investing – Market and policy fluctuations – Pests and disease – Extreme climate events • Reduces need for external inputs • Distributes labor/income throughout the year (Ayres, 2008; Padovan et al., 2009; Santos, 2010; Barbieri & Valdivia, 2010; Vivan, 2010; Steenbock et al., 2013; Fonini, 2014; Mendes et al., 2014; Vira et al., 2015)
  10. 10. Social and economic benefits • Working in the shade, quality of life, self-esteem, well being, leisure, culture • Strenghtens social cohesion, unity • Maintenance of agro-biodiversity
  11. 11. Environmental and social objectives of AFS Objectives Envirionmental Social and economicSocio-environmental Benefits Management
  12. 12. Cocoa-based agroforestry for restoration in SE Pará State: simple vs successional agroforests Simple Successional Cocoa + banana + cassava + native trees in pastures
  13. 13. Oil Palm + Agroforestry “SAFDendê” Project • Annual crops: 3-4 years (cassava, maize, short-cycle legumes) • Fruit trees/cash crops: cacao, açaí (euterpe oleracea), banana, bacaba (oneocarpus bacaba), black pepper • Timber, fertilizer trees • Intense management, slash-and- mulch • Organic/agroecological systems (no chemical inputs) • First of its kind Photos: Andrew Miccolis Tomé Açu, Pará, Brazil
  14. 14. What are key constraints in different links of web? How do these constraints vary across the landscape/per value web? Middlemen Independent producers (isolated) APRAFAMTA / MRITIPITANGA Members of Small Cooperatives CAMTA Registered CAMTA suppliers CAMTA members Local Trade Quatro Bocas e TA National and international markets Production Marketing processing Markets KEY CONSTRAINTS • Vary greatly from chain to chain, geo location and farmer types, BUT… • Overall, great dependence on middlemen • Greatest constraint for fruit pulps = processing + • Low level of social organization • Access to credit (due to high default, procedural barriers) • technical assistance/extension for biodiverse AF MAPPING OIL PALM AGROFORESTRY VALUE CHAINS in NE Pará State Passionfruit Acai palm (Euterpe oleracea) Cassava Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum) Cocoa Black pepper What are the key ingredients of inclusive oil palm agroforestry business model? Oil palm Inclusive business model? • Optimal size of AF + OP for family farmers to establish/yr? • Technological package: use of inputs/labor for other crops? • How to share risks and benefits? Oil Palm Agroforestry Value Web in Brazil
  15. 15. Photos: Jimi Amaral Restoring degraded pasture with oil palm agroforestry, Tomé Açu, Pará, Eastern Amazon
  16. 16. Carbon stocks in oil palm Agoroforests vs secondary forests 10-15 yr regrowth 57 ± 4.3 Mg C Ha-1 Conventional Local AFS 60 ± 4.1 Mg C Ha-1 Oil Palm + AFS Treatment 3 (low diversity): 75.9 ± 2.6 Mg C Ha-1 Oil Palm + AFS Treatment 2 (high diversity manual preparation): 71.5 ± 2.6 Mg C Ha-1 Oil Palm + AFS Treatment 1 (high diversity mechanized preparation): 70.8 ± 1.3 Mg C Ha-1 = = Source: Carvalho et al 2014 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 Oil palm + Agroforestry Treat.1 Oil palm + Agroforestry Treat. 2 Oil pam + Agroforestry Treat. 3 10-15 yr old regrowth Conventional Local Agroforestry Systems Mg C Ha-1 Soil Carbon stocks at 0-50 cm (Mg C Ha-1) Source: Carvalho et al 2014, Agroforestry Systems
  17. 17. Thank you! Grato!