Agro-ecological intensification in the highlands of Eastern Africa: options and trajectories   Kenneth Masuki World Agrofo...
INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Complex interactions    land-users and their environments. </li></ul>
HIGHLANDS OF EASTERN AFRICA <ul><li>Unsustainable use of natural resources </li></ul>
LIVELIHOODS OPTIONS <ul><li>Livelihood depends on agro-ecosystems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>intensively cultivated  </li></ul...
AGRIC INTENSIFICATION <ul><li>The intensification of agricultural production in Africa is based on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
AGRIC INTENSIFICATION AFRICAN VERSION Smallholder farmers (Mostly poor) Increasing production (key staple food crops) Pote...
THE FOCUS INRM  Innovations Agro-ecological  Intensification Enhanced Conservation of  Agro-biodiversity Trajectories and ...
QUESTIONS <ul><li>What INRM options have smallholder farmers adapted to enhance agro-ecological intensification?  </li></u...
METHODOLOGY <ul><li>Review of 15 years in AHI BMS in the HEA </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory action research Approach </li...
TRAJECTORIES <ul><li>System integration </li></ul><ul><li>Community participation  </li></ul><ul><li>Collective action  </...
SYSTEM INTEGRATION <ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Livestock  </li></ul></ul><ul...
COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION <ul><li>Engagement with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>communities  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>local instit...
COLLECTIVE ACTION <ul><li>Mobilizing groups of people to work toward common goals   </li></ul>
WATERSHED MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Participatory Integrated Watershed Management </li></ul><ul><li>Many NRM problems have landsc...
INSTITUTIONAL INNOVATION <ul><li>Landscape level NRM problems requires innovation in the institutions </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
INRM OPTIONS
ENTRY POINT <ul><li>Strategy to smoothly and effectively engage with communities  </li></ul>
LINKED TECHNOLOGIES
SYSTEM DIVERSIFICATION
AGRO-ECOSYSTEM INTEGRITY NICHE COMPATIBILITY CRITERIA  LEAST COMPATIBLE SPECIES MOST COMPATIBLE SPECIES Farm Boundaries <u...
AGRO-ECOSYSTEM INTEGRITY Soil Health
AGRO-ECOSYSTEM INTEGRITY Shrub/Tree Score Nutrients in Shrubs (g/kg) SOC SON Bray1 Exch. K pH (H2O) N P K g /kg mg/kg mmol...
INRM AND AGRO-BIODIVERSITY
GOVERNANCE ISSUES  BM SITE PROBLEMS GOVERNANCE SOLUTIONS Ginchi, Ethiopia Incompatible trees on farm boundaries <ul><li>Mi...
GOVERNANCE ISSSUES <ul><li>Negotiation support on resource governance </li></ul><ul><li>Policy and by-law process </li></ul>
LESSONS LEARNT <ul><li>INRM innovations resulted into: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved systems component linkages  </li></u...
CONCLUSION System  Integration Ecological  Intensification Community Participation Institutional Innovation Watershed Mana...
THANKS FOR LISTENING
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Agro ecological intensification in the highlands of eastern africa options and trajectories

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Agro ecological intensification in the highlands of eastern africa options and trajectories

  1. 1. Agro-ecological intensification in the highlands of Eastern Africa: options and trajectories Kenneth Masuki World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF/AHI), Kampala
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Complex interactions  land-users and their environments. </li></ul>
  3. 3. HIGHLANDS OF EASTERN AFRICA <ul><li>Unsustainable use of natural resources </li></ul>
  4. 4. LIVELIHOODS OPTIONS <ul><li>Livelihood depends on agro-ecosystems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>intensively cultivated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steep landscapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly eroded </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. AGRIC INTENSIFICATION <ul><li>The intensification of agricultural production in Africa is based on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less use of industrial agrochemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System integration </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. AGRIC INTENSIFICATION AFRICAN VERSION Smallholder farmers (Mostly poor) Increasing production (key staple food crops) Potential Sustainable Production Intensification Integrated Natural Resource Management.
  7. 7. THE FOCUS INRM Innovations Agro-ecological Intensification Enhanced Conservation of Agro-biodiversity Trajectories and Options
  8. 8. QUESTIONS <ul><li>What INRM options have smallholder farmers adapted to enhance agro-ecological intensification? </li></ul><ul><li>What trajectories did INRM take into agro-ecological intensification in the smallholder farming systems? </li></ul>
  9. 9. METHODOLOGY <ul><li>Review of 15 years in AHI BMS in the HEA </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory action research Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FGD, ranking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key Informant interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Household surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Field experimentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Case study approach </li></ul>
  10. 10. TRAJECTORIES <ul><li>System integration </li></ul><ul><li>Community participation </li></ul><ul><li>Collective action </li></ul><ul><li>Watershed management </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional innovation. </li></ul>
  11. 11. SYSTEM INTEGRATION <ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Livestock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trees and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION <ul><li>Engagement with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>local institutions and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Equitable development strategies </li></ul>
  13. 13. COLLECTIVE ACTION <ul><li>Mobilizing groups of people to work toward common goals </li></ul>
  14. 14. WATERSHED MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Participatory Integrated Watershed Management </li></ul><ul><li>Many NRM problems have landscape level perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spring rehabilitation required village-level organizing </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. INSTITUTIONAL INNOVATION <ul><li>Landscape level NRM problems requires innovation in the institutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmer organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Novel organizational structures (Innovation Platform) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. INRM OPTIONS
  17. 17. ENTRY POINT <ul><li>Strategy to smoothly and effectively engage with communities </li></ul>
  18. 18. LINKED TECHNOLOGIES
  19. 19. SYSTEM DIVERSIFICATION
  20. 20. AGRO-ECOSYSTEM INTEGRITY NICHE COMPATIBILITY CRITERIA LEAST COMPATIBLE SPECIES MOST COMPATIBLE SPECIES Farm Boundaries <ul><li>No adverse effect on adjacent crops </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion control </li></ul><ul><li>Good for shade </li></ul><ul><li>Source of income </li></ul>Eucalyptus globulus, Cupressus lusitanica Senecio gigas, Rahmnus prinoides, Podocarpus gracilor Buddleja polystachya Dombeya torrida, Hagenia abyssinica Maesa lanceolata Hypericum quartinianum Springs and waterways discharge <ul><li>No negative effect on spring </li></ul><ul><li>Has a shallow root system </li></ul>Cupressus lusitanica Eucalyptus globulus, Juniperus procera, Olea africana, Senecio gigas, Vernonia auruculifera Salix subserata, Hagenia abyssinica Maesa lanceolata, Olea africana Podocarpus gracilor
  21. 21. AGRO-ECOSYSTEM INTEGRITY Soil Health
  22. 22. AGRO-ECOSYSTEM INTEGRITY Shrub/Tree Score Nutrients in Shrubs (g/kg) SOC SON Bray1 Exch. K pH (H2O) N P K g /kg mg/kg mmol/kg Vernonia subligera 10 36 0.25 4.7 22 4.5 8 9.4 6.5 Vernonia amyridiantha 9 34 0.23 4.5 21 4.5 10 10.8 5.0 Albizia schimperiana 9 31 0.32 1.3 16 4.3 13 8.4 5.1 Ficus vallis-choudae 8 30 0.23 4.4 57 6.6 9 3.6 6.4 Kalanchoe crinata 2 21 0.23 3.8 27 5.2 9 4.6 5.1 Bothriocline tementosa 2 21 0.27 1.5 20 4.3 7 1.6 4.9 Justicia glabra 2 20 0.27 2.1 27 5.7 10 2.8 6.3 Soils away from the shrubs 16 2.0 6 3.0 5.1
  23. 23. INRM AND AGRO-BIODIVERSITY
  24. 24. GOVERNANCE ISSUES BM SITE PROBLEMS GOVERNANCE SOLUTIONS Ginchi, Ethiopia Incompatible trees on farm boundaries <ul><li>Minimum 10m barrier between Eucalyptus and cultivated land; </li></ul><ul><li>By-law specifying acceptable locations for Eucalyptus (i.e. degraded areas). </li></ul>Lushoto, Tanzania Competition of boundary trees with adjacent cropland <ul><li>Ban Eucalyptus on farm boundaries; </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum of 15 meters between Acrocarpus trees on farm boundaries to minimize competition with crops or total ban on Acrocarpus (solutions varied by village); </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone caught planting harmful trees on farm boundaries will pay a fine of 5,000 Tanzania shillings. </li></ul>
  25. 25. GOVERNANCE ISSSUES <ul><li>Negotiation support on resource governance </li></ul><ul><li>Policy and by-law process </li></ul>
  26. 26. LESSONS LEARNT <ul><li>INRM innovations resulted into: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved systems component linkages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers integrating diverse enterprises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactions among components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimize diverse returns in production system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thus INRM has contributed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agro -ecological intensification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased genetic diversity in agricultural landscapes in the study areas. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. CONCLUSION System Integration Ecological Intensification Community Participation Institutional Innovation Watershed Management Watershed Management
  28. 28. THANKS FOR LISTENING

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