22b E S Monyo Obj 8


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22b E S Monyo Obj 8

  1. 1. Objective 8.2: Groundnut, Seed Systems in ESA ICRISAT Bamako, Mali
  2. 2. Project Partners in Eastern and Southern Africa - ESA
  4. 4. Project Components •  Improve seed availability and thus adoption of new varieties •  Build capacity to ensure a sustainable supply of affordable high-quality seed
  5. 5. Highlights of Results •  On Improving Availability
  6. 6. What was the legume seed system situation when the project started? Baseline report.
  7. 7. Relative contribution (% share) of different seed sources to groundnut seed supply •  Tanzania –  92.9% Farmer saved seed –  3.4% Farmer to farmer –  Balance: agro dealers, traders, local producers family gifts •  Malawi –  53% Farmer saved seed –  16% purchased from local seed producer –  9% Farmer clubs –  8% Farmer to farmer –  7% inherited from family –  Balance: gift and agro dealers
  8. 8. Adoption of groundnuts varieties in Malawi (%) (awareness Ever Planted in % of all Planted 06/07 farmers) (% of all (% of all)  Crop variety h’holds) Groundnuts 55 CG 7 53 38 21 Chalimbana 84 69 37 Manipintar 11 9 2 Chalimbana 2005 9 8 5 Kalisere 5 5 2 Nsinjiro 3 3 1 Baka 3 2 0 Kakoma 2 1 1
  9. 9. Major reasons for never planting some groundnut varieties in Malawi (% h’holds never planted) Lack of Lack of Low Groundnut varieties access cash to buy yielding CG 7 73 8 3 Kakoma 80 0 0 Chalimbana 2005 80 20 20 Chalimbana 51 10 18 Nsinjiro 100 0 0 Baka 67 11 0 Manipitar 64 18 0
  10. 10. Summary of bottlenecks 1.  Lack of awareness 2.  Lack of access to seed
  11. 11. Approaches being tested •  Seed Production and delivery strategies for breeder and Foundations Seed – Breeder seed at all Agric Research Stns – – Foundation seed thro Foundation seed farms and contract growers vs Revolving Funds •  Initial production thro project funds but subsequently thro seed revolving fund
  12. 12. The ICRISAT Seed Revolving Fund Model ICRISAT  6  Contr 2  Seed Stock  4  NGOs  act  Farm Grow 3  10  ers  ers  Seed Rev  5  Seed Co  7  1  Fund  8  11  Agrodealer  8  13  12 9  Government of Malawi  The bold black arrows indicate the flow of seed.   The red arrows indicate the flow of cash in the system. 
  13. 13. Scheme details •  ICRISAT selects outgrowers and gives them seed on credit funded by the Revolving Fund •  At the end of the season the farmer sells the produced seed to ICRISAT •  ICRISAT pays the farmer the contract price per kg of seed using the money from the Revolving Fund •  ICRISAT sells the seed to Seed companies and NGOs •  The buyers of the seed pay to ICRISAT which replenishes the Revolving Fund •  NGOs give away seed to farmers in certain areas •  Seed companies sell seed directly to farmers or, •  Seed companies sell seed through agrodealers •  The government provides farmers with vouchers to purchase seed under the Subsidy Scheme •  Farmers purchase seed from seed companies and pay using cash plus the voucher (subsidy is partial) or, •  Farmers purchase seed from agrodealers and pay using cash plus the voucher •  The agrodealer collects the redeemed vouchers and gives them to the government who pays the value of the vouchers to the agrodealer •  The seed company collects the redeemed vouchers and gives them to the government who pays the value of the vouchers to the seed company
  14. 14. Production and Delivery Approaches cont •  Certified Seed through – Farmer Associations – FA (NASFAM; MW), Farmer Cooperatives-FC (Tanzania) •  Smallholder farmers linked to FA /FC are trained to produce certified seed for NGOs with DoA support •  NGOs purchase for relief (10t CARE-MW) •  FA/FC purchase for their membership (40t TZ) •  Govt buys for subsidy programs (300t MW)
  15. 15. Production and Delivery Approaches cont •  Community / informal seed supply –  Community seed banks; Farmers pay back seed loan on post-harvest return in kind to the community (140t MVP MW, 12t CARE&NASFAM) –  Rural Community structures: FFS (80 TZ 134 MW), seed villages/churches(46 TZ, 50 MW), –  Farmer field days (19 MW/TZ ≥1000 farmers), Demos & PVS in each seed village/FFS and seed fairs involving 2500 farmers
  16. 16. Production and Delivery Approaches cont •  Seed marketing platforms –  Farmer associations in Malawi under the umbrella of NASFAM and Pvt Traders –  Farmer Marketing Groups in Tanzania under the umbrella of District Cooperatives in District Councils (support NGO efforts) –  Govt of Malawi thro registered dealers (seed co, seed associations, agro-dealers, private individuals for the subsidy program)
  17. 17. Capacity for sustainable supply of affordable quality seed •  Training in seed production and delivery strategies –  547 seed producers (Farmers and their supervising officers), 57 technicians, 141 extension officers, 46 farmer research group leaders in MW and TZ •  Establish & train farmer marketing groups in Tanzania and Malawi –  Three groups in TZ under Masasi and Nanyumbu District Councils-DC (Mpeta, Mnanje B and Likokona) –  19 groups in Mchinji, 28 groups in Nkhotakhota under NASFAM and 3 groups in Zomba under MVP in MW. –  134 FFS under CARE MW, 80 FFS under DC and KIMAS in TZ trained on seed production & marketing
  18. 18. Capacity for affordable quality seed cont •  Produced groundnut seed production manual in Swahili (Tanzania) •  More than 15000 flyers for released varieties and their production practices in Swahili and Chichewa •  TV, Radio broadcasts, newspapers, live interviews a norm •  Degree training 1 MSc
  19. 19. Challenges  Weather – Early cessation of rainfall  Transport problems –Restricted mobility to supervise/monitor seed production  Food insecurity –used as food or sold it as grain to meet other demands  Low private investment- Small market size of legume seeds  Trained Manpower- Limited number of research & seed technicians  Seed production during off-season- Irrigation system installation with most of the NARS still incomplete
  20. 20. Lessons learned •  Areas for seed production should target assured productive regions to lower seed costs •  Cumbersome seed certification procedures for gnuts is unnecessary discourages smallholders leading to high seed costs •  Whereas small seed packs is popular with new vars, for gnuts they should be at lease 1-2kg to be appreciated. •  New vars are a stimulant for adoption of Good Agron Practices hence the need for faster testing and release system •  Informal sector supplies signf proportion of legume seed. Its improved efficiency will have positive contribution to enhanced legume seed supply
  21. 21. Other Collaborating Projects •  Groundnut Breeding E/S Africa – (The McKnight Foundation) •  Malawi Food Security Program (CARE/ICRISAT) - EU •  Malawi Legumes Seed Development Program (IRISH AID) •  ICRISAT Seed Revolving Fund (USAID) •  Treasure Legumes – IFAD Project (Malawi and Tanzania)
  22. 22. Thank You